Presentation on theme: "C HAPTER F IFTEEN : E UROPEAN C IVILIZATION, 1871– 1914: S OCIETY AND C ULTURE Lauren Handley and Thomas Hong."— Presentation transcript:
C HAPTER F IFTEEN : E UROPEAN C IVILIZATION, 1871– 1914: S OCIETY AND C ULTURE Lauren Handley and Thomas Hong
N IETZSCHE ' S CRITICISM OF C HRISTIANITY WAS AIMED PRIMARILY AT ?: A) the Christian belief in miracles and other doctrines that are not based on reason. B) Christian morality, which he believed was repressive and fit only for slaves. C) Christianity's rejection of science and the rational thought of the Enlightenment. D) the corruption and abuses that had occurred throughout the history of the church. E) the ideals expressed by Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical, Rerum Novarum.
A NSWER : B) Christian morality, which he believed was repressive and fit only for slaves. Explanation: Qualities of humility, patience, helpfulness, hope, and love, in short the specifically Christian virtues, Nietzsche described as a slave morality concocted by the weak to disarm the strong. Qualities of courage, love of danger, intellectual excellence, and the beauty of character, he prized more highly.
T HE EXPERIMENTS P AVLOV CONDUCTED WITH DOGS SHOWED THE IMPORTANCE OF ?: A) arbitrary interpretations. B) animal psychology. C) natural selection. D) conditioned responses. E) subjective reflexes.
A NSWER : D) conditioned responses. Explanation: Pavlov’s observations implied that a great part of animal behavior, and presumably human behavior, could be explained on the basis of conditioned responses.
E MMELINE P ANKHURST WAS NOTED FOR HER : A) realistic novels depicting the life of poor workers. B) impressionist paintings. C) militant advocacy of women's suffrage. D) contributions to the field of science and medicine. E) leadership in the pacifist movement.
A NSWER : C) militant advocacy of women's suffrage. Explanation: Frustrated by stubborn resistance of male politicians, she led a radical wing of the suffrage movement into a campaign of violent protests in Britain. She and other suffragettes were widely ridiculed, but after World War One, women over 30 received the right to vote.
S IGMUND F REUD THOUGHT THE WAY TO HELP HIS PSYCHOLOGICALLY DISTURBED PATIENTS WAS TO ?: A) change that patient's id. B) use electrotherapy along with drugs. C) help them override the pleasure principle. D) trace repression back to its childhood origins. E) destroy their superegos.
A NSWER : D) trace repression back to its childhood origins. Explanation: He believed that certain forms of emotional disturbance were traceable to earlier forgotten episodes of patients’ lives. He used techniques like free association or free recall.
W HAT VIEW OF F ABIAN SOCIALISTS DIFFERED FROM ORTHODOX M ARXISM ?: A) socialism was more likely to succeed in less industrial countries. B) private property and socialism could co-exist. C) democracy could lead to socialism, revolution was not necessary. D) workers were not really able to run government and had to be taken care of by a paternalistic state. E) only a brutal dictatorship could lead to a socialist society.
A NSWER : C) democracy could lead to socialism, revolution was not necessary. Explanation: They believed that no class conflict was necessary or even existed, that gradual and reasonable and conciliatory measures would in due time bring about a socialist state from political democracy.
W HAT WAS THE IDEOLOGICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN B AKUNIN AND M ARX ? A) Marx felt that socialism could only be achieved through huge reforms; Bakunin wanted small, gradual reforms B) They both wanted a socialist society where economic classes would be abolished and all individuals could develop their creative capacities C) Marx like Coke better than Pepsi; Bakunin vice versa D) Marx was an anarchist; Bakunin believed that capitalism was the way to go E) Bakunin believed that the state was the cause of the common man’s afflictions; Marx believed that the state was a product of economic conditions
A NSWER E) Bakunin believed that the state was the cause of the common man’s afflictions; Marx believed that the state was a product of economic conditions Explanation: Bakunin was an “anarchist”, holding that the state should be attacked and abolished. To Marx, anarchism was abhorrent.
I N THE 19 TH CENTURY, A GROUP OF PEOPLE ARGUED THAT THE " NATURAL SUPERIORITY " OF SOME RACES JUSTIFIED COLONIALISM T HIS GROUP USED THE PRINCIPLE OF " NATURAL SELECTION." A) Social Darwinists B) Romanticists C) Liberals D) Followers of Nultyism E) Conservatives
A NSWER : A) Social Darwinists Explanation: Social Darwinists actively applied the ideas of struggle for existence and survival of the fittest from biological evolution to human society. Their doctrines were put to various political and cultural uses to show that some peoples were naturally superior to others, such as whites to blacks, or Nordics to Latins, or Germans to Slavs, or non-Jews to Jews, or upper class to middle class.
A LL OF THE FOLLOWING WERE DISCOVERIES OR IMPACTS OF A LBERT E INSTEIN EXCEPT: A) Einstein disproved Newton’s laws B) Time, space, and motion were not absolute in character but were relative to the observer and the observer’s own movement in space. C) E=mc² D) The Newtonian world was being replaced by a four-dimensional world, a kind of space-time continuum E) Brought together a unified field theory, an explanation of gravitation, electromagnetism, and subatomic behavior.
A NSWER : A) Einstein disproved Newton’s laws Explanation: He did all the others. Bada bing.
W HAT IS P OPE L EO XIII CHIEFLY REMEMBERED FOR ? A) For discriminating against Jews and calling for their emancipation from the Vatican B) For formulating Catholic social doctrine, specifically Rerum Novarum C) For speaking 8 languages and being against homosexuals and divorce D) For opposing the Jewish discrimination and embracing religions from around the world E) For supporting capitalism because of the many Christian-like aspects of it
A NSWER : B) For formulating Catholic social doctrine, specifically Rerum Novarum Explanation: Rerum Novarum upheld private property as a natural right, within the limits of justice; but it found fault with capitalism for the poverty, insecurity, and even degradation in which many of the laboring classes were left. Socialism was Christian in principle.
A LL OF THE FOLLOWING WERE OUTCOMES OF THE “ NEW ” LIBERALISM EXCEPT: A) Factory codes became more detailed and better enforced B) Social insurance, initiated by Bismarck, spread to other countries C) Governments regulated the purity of food and drugs D) Women were encouraged to stay at home and raise their children with democratic ideals E) Governments acted against monopolies and trusts
A NSWER : D) Women were encouraged to stay at home and raise their children with democratic ideals Explanation: All the other ones were outcomes. Bada bing.