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Presented by Gillian Smith. Research Question To assess the effectiveness of the ethics legislation since its introduction in 1995. To compare the attitudes.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Gillian Smith. Research Question To assess the effectiveness of the ethics legislation since its introduction in 1995. To compare the attitudes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by Gillian Smith

2 Research Question To assess the effectiveness of the ethics legislation since its introduction in To compare the attitudes of Oireachtas members to corrupt acts to those of Westminster MPs before and after the Nolan Reforms.

3 Previous Studies USA – Beard and Horn, Peters and Welsh Canada – Atkinson and Mancuso UK – Mancuso, Nolan Australia – Rodney Smith

4 The fifteen hypothetical scenarios presented to Oireachtas Members 1. Ticket: A TD is issued a first class airline ticket as part of a parliamentary delegation. She exchanges the ticket for an economy fare and pockets the difference. 2. Envelopes: A Senator brings pre-stamped Oireachtas envelopes to his Party’s County Councillors for them to use. 3. Retainer: A TD on retainer to a PR company representing the Construction Industry raises the abolition of stamp duty during Order of Business. 4. Contract: A Cabinet Minister uses his influence to obtain a large contract for a firm in his constituency. 5. Hospital: A TD uses his/her position to get a friend or relative moved up on a hospital waiting list. 6. Position: A Cabinet Minister promises an appointed position in exchange for campaign contributions to her Party. 7. License: A Cabinet Minister gives out State Broadcasting licences to individuals who donated large amounts to his Party prior to an election. 8. Secretary General: A Minister brings the Secretary General of his department to a Party meeting to inform the Minister’s Party Colleagues of an upcoming complex policy debate. 9. Parliamentary Secretary: A TD hires a family member as his/her Parliamentary Secretary. 10. Meeting: The head of a large Irish company goes to Leinster House to meet with the Minister for Finance to discuss the implications of upcoming tax legislation. 11. Paris: The head of a large Irish company flies the Minister for Finance to Paris to attend a rugby match. 12. Garda: A Garda receives fifty euro from the owner of a lorry to pass his logbook inspection 13. Pass: A TD requests and receives an Oireachtas pass for a lobbyist to act as a research assistant, although her services are being paid for by an outside source. 14. Committee: An All Party Committee on the disabled secures the services of a full time research assistant at the expense of the Irish Wheelchair Association 15. Wine: A TD accepts a case of wine from a constituent as a Christmas gift. Source: Smith, (2008)

5 Scenario Responses and Statistics ItemRating TotalCorrupt %Not Corrupt %MeanStd Dev Garda Position Licences Pass Ticket Retainer Committee Paris Contract Envelopes Secretary General Hospital Parliamentary Secretary Meeting Wine

6 Overview of the results Women more intolerant of corruption Those serving longer than 10 years most intolerant, those serving between 5-10 years most tolerant of corruption – no ‘collegiate effect’. D á il members more intolerant than Senators.

7 Examining the Results Constituency service: Hospital, Contract, Envelopes. Conflict of Interest: License, Pass, Ticket, Retainer, Paris, Parliamentary Secretary, Wine, Position.

8 Bar graph showing responses to ‘Contract’ question Contract: A Cabinet Minister uses his influence to obtain a large contract for a firm in his constituency.

9 Bar graph showing responses to ‘Hospital’ question Hospital: A TD uses his/her position to get a friend or relative moved up on a hospital waiting list.

10 Bar graph showing response rate for ‘Position’ question Position: A Cabinet Minister promises an appointed position in exchange for campaign contributions to her Party.

11 Bar graph showing responses to ‘Wine’ question Wine: A TD accepts a case of wine from a constituent as a Christmas gift.

12 Service and Conflict scores for Mancuso, Allen and Smith studies Study Conflict Score Std DevService ScoreStd Dev Mancuso* Allen** Smith Source: *Mancuso (1995); ** Allen (2006); Smith (2008).

13 Ethical Locations of the Sample of Oireachtas Members

14 Breakdown of respondents relative to mean scores Servants 16% (M) 22% (A) 21% (S) Entrepreneurs 35% (M) 30% (A) 34% (S) Puritans 28% (M) 23% (A) 24% (S) Muddlers 21% (M) 25% (A) 22% (S) Service Conflict Low ToleranceHigh Tolerance Low Tolerance High Tolerance Key: M indicates Mancuso’s (1995) data, A indicates Allen’s (2006) data and S indicates data from this study completed by Smith (2008).

15 Breakdown of respondents relative to the Mancuso mean scores Servants 16% (M) 50% (S) Entrepreneurs 35% (M) 7% (S) Puritans 28% (M) 43% (S) Muddlers 21% (M) 0% (S) Service Conflict Low ToleranceHigh Tolerance Low Tolerance High Tolerance Key: M indicates Mancuso’s (1995) data, S indicates data from this study completed by Smith (2008).

16 Explanations for differences Political System -PR/STV - Coalition Culture/Religion -Catholicism -Personalism

17 Conclusion Limited effect of legislation Monitoring required Importance of constituency service to voters - improving the responsiveness of the public service - increasing constituency size


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