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Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia Date submitted to deafed.net – April 4, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please e-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.
The Art of Reading Chapter 6 Scheetz p.138-155
Scheets, 2001, p. 138 The Art of Reading Reading is a form of communication that evolves in infancy and unfolds gradually throughout one’s lifetime.
Scheetz, 2001, p.138 Learning to Read: Begins in early childhood with parents labeling pictures with words. Combination of interrelated skills required for reading comprehension to occur. The skills must occur simultaneously in order to accomplish this task.
Scheetz, 2001, p.139 Learning to Read Researchers not sure how children acquire all these abilities. They agree that it is essential that they be able to recognize letters as symbols, thus enabling them to attach meaning to them.
Scheetz, 2001, p.139-141 Six Phases while learning to Read Prereading phase (Birth to Age 5) Phase One (ages 5 through 7) Phase Two (ages 8 and 9) Phase Three (ages 10 through 14) Phase Four (ages 15 through 18) Phase Five (ages 18 and above)
Scheetz, 2001, p.139 Prereading Phase (Birth – 5) Parents introduce books, point to pictures and name objects Children are exposed to print Entertained through educational tv shows children start to recognize some words By age 4, children can identify their names I print and a few other words 80% can recognize ‘stop’ and all probably know McDonalds’ “M”
Scheetz, 2001, p.140 Phase One (Ages 5-7) Children continue to concentrate on decoding single words through 2 nd grade Rely on oral language and metalinguistic skills to comprehend the text ½ of kindergarteners and 90% of 1 st graders are able to segment words into syllables By end of 1 st grade about 70% can segment by phoneme Have acquired graphemic, syllabic, and word knowledge they need to become competent readers
Scheetz, 2001, p.140 Phase Two (Ages 8-9) Begins to analyze unknown words Use ability to sound out words, inspect surrounding text, and scrutinizing accompanying pictures, graphs and charts to decipher meaning
Scheetz, 2001, p.140 Phase Three (Ages 10-14) Major shift in reading process Decoding skills have become entrenched Focuses attention on comprehending written materials Children develop their abilities to scan written material while gleaning important information
Scheetz, 2001, p.140 Phase Four (ages 15-18) Incorporate higher level reading skills Draw on ability to make references and examine varying perspectives and viewpoints found in literature
Scheetz, 2001, p140-141 Phase Five (Ages 18 and above) Adults are able to read a variety of materials and comprehend the meaning.
Scheetz, 2001, p.141-1443 Three Major Approaches To Reading Bottom Up Models Top Down Models Interactive Models
Scheetz, 2001, p.141 Bottom Up Models Stress importance of lower level perceptual and phonemic processing and their influence on higher cognitive functioning Readers analyze letters, decode syllables, and are then able to focus o the meaning of text Reading instruction emphasizes phonetics and the basic rules for translating written symbols
Scheetz, 2001, p.141 Bottom Up Model Simplified reading material utilized until phonological rules are advanced Identification of letters and words is stressed Emphasis on phonetics in the first three grades According to this theory, children experience difficulty reading because they lack the ability to make the connection between English speech sounds and printed letters.
Scheetz, 2001, p.141-142 Top Down Models Known as problem solving models Focus on the cognitive task of deriving meaning from what lies in the reader’s head The reader forms hypotheses and makes assumptions about what he or she is reading based on his/her knowledge, content of material, and syntactic structures
Scheetz, 2001, p.141-142 Top Down Model The reader comprehends the largest units (meaning) and proceeds downward to the smallest units (letters and words) Has the philosophy that children do not need to be taught to read. They just need to be exposed to reading and writing activities for them to develop ease in accomplishing both tasks Also known as Whole Language or Language Experience Approach
Scheetz, 2001, p.142-143 Interactive Models Reflects principles found in several theories Considered to be more accurate in explaining how both beginning and mature readers ascertain information Instructors implement both Bottom Up and Top Down Model Both word identification and comprehension are stressed Phonics taught and skills incorporated into the Top Down Model for comprehension Stresses using prior experiences of reader and semantic maps
Scheetz, 2001, p.143-144 The Impact of Deafness on Reading Development d/c d/p: experience language and reading in the same fashion as h/c h/p d/p continually sign to their children like h/p talks to their infant Later, d/p observe and correct signs of child d/p point to illustrations, connect pictures and later the works to signs Through a combination of mime, gestures, sign and fingerspelling the child begins to develop vocabulary, cultivate concepts and grasp the meaning of printed materials
Scheetz, 2001, p. 144 Impact of Deafness on Reading Development 12 months hearing child produces 1 st work, 18- 24 months: acquire rudimentary syntax Deaf Child: 12 months producing one word signs, 18-24 months: two-word stage Deaf Child: by age 3 capable of developing a link between fingerspelled letters and the orthographical system of print
Scheetz, 2001, p.144-145 However: Most deaf children are born to hearing parents Prereading tasks may take a “back burner” to fundamental communication strategies, thus stifling the progression of reading readiness
Scheetz, 2001, p.145-146 Impact of Deafness During Phase One d/c of d/p arrive at school knowing ASL but that native language is not acceptable or understood d/c of h/p limited English skills and few sign skills English language skills needed to succeed with reading curricula If preliminary skills are not intact, early school years will be devoted to mastering these skills before they can become active, instead of passive readers
Scheetz, 2001, p.146-147 Impact of Deafness During Phase Two Most deaf individuals do not find phonological recording beneficial Bottom Up Model challenging Will start to lag behind their hearing classmates as they struggle to master the new vocabulary and uncover meaning found within complex sentences
Scheetz, 2001, p.147-148 Impact of Deafness During Phase Three Multi subjects such as history, science and advanced math Unable to decipher content in these subjects due to nonmastery of English and poor vocabularies Difficulty with both Bottom Up and Top Down Models The gap between hearing and deaf students widens
Scheetz, 2001, p.148-149 Impact of Deafness During Phase Four Need to read for content Majority still paying attention to the details of reading and refocusing on reading for the sake of reading, not for deriving content Limited vocabularies and weakened grammatical base Reading levels low Complete high school with minimal reading strategies
Scheetz, 2001, p.149 Impact of Deafness During Phase Five Some enter vocational schools or community colleges, some workforce The route they take has a bearing on the reading materials they will encounter Majority of college age deaf students enroll in developmental reading classes
Scheetz, 2001, p.149-150 Strategies for Enhancing Reading Through a Multisensory Approach Some use oral approach Some use simultaneous communication Both approaches beneficial for few students but many others struggle
Scheetz, 2001, p.150-151 David Schleper’s Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success Principal 1. American Sign Language is used by deaf readers to translate stories Principal 2. Both ASL and English are visible to the deaf child as books are being read Principal 3. Deaf readers feel free to expand sentences found in stories Principal 4. Stories are read repeatedly on a “storytelling” to “story reading” continuum Principal 5. Deaf children lead; deaf readers follow
Scheetz, 2001, p.152 Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success Principal 6. Deaf readers take implied meaning and make it explicit Principal 7. Deaf readers use spatial signs to convey meaning Principal 8. Deaf readers make adjustments in their signing style to bring the character to life Principal 9. Events that occur in stories are connected to the real world Principal 10. Attention maintenance strategies are employed while reading books
Scheetz, 2001, p.153 Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success Principal 11. Eye gaze is used to encourage participation Principal 12. Role play is utilized to extend concepts Principal 13. Sign variations are used to represent repetitive English phrases Principal 14. A positive and reinforcing environment is established for deaf readers Principal 15. Deaf children are expected to become literate
Scheetz, 2001, p.154 Applying the principles to the classroom Andrews, Winograd, and Deville (1996) proposed prereading instruction be implemented in classroom They did a study to test ASL summary technique Six steps involved in the technique Study showed six steps greatly improved retelling skills and comprehending the moral less found in reading selections
Scheetz, 2001, p.154 ASL Summary Techniques “designed to build background knowledge in the reader, activate old background knowledge, and focus the reader’s attention on information in the text before he reads the actual text” (Andrews, Winograd, &Deville, 1996, p.31).
Scheetz, 2001, p.154 ASL Summary Techniques Step 1. The teacher gives a summary of a short fable in ASL. Step 2. The student independently reads the fable. Step 3. The student individually retells all he or she can remember about the text. Step 4. The student tells the moral lesson of the fable to the teacher. Step 5. The teacher and the student discuss the student’s retelling and moral lesson response. Step 6. The teacher fills in semantic and conceptual gaps.