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Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Molly R. Simonton, M.S. South Charleston, West Virginia
Date submitted to deafed.net – April 4, 2006 To contact the author for permission to use this PowerPoint, please To use this PowerPoint presentation in its entirety, please give credit to the author.

2 The Art of Reading Chapter 6 Scheetz p

3 The Art of Reading Reading is a form of communication that evolves in infancy and unfolds gradually throughout one’s lifetime. Scheets, 2001, p. 138

4 Learning to Read: Begins in early childhood with parents labeling pictures with words. Combination of interrelated skills required for reading comprehension to occur. The skills must occur simultaneously in order to accomplish this task. Scheetz, 2001, p.138

5 Learning to Read Researchers not sure how children acquire all these abilities. They agree that it is essential that they be able to recognize letters as symbols, thus enabling them to attach meaning to them. Scheetz, 2001, p.139

6 Six Phases while learning to Read
Prereading phase (Birth to Age 5) Phase One (ages 5 through 7) Phase Two (ages 8 and 9) Phase Three (ages 10 through 14) Phase Four (ages 15 through 18) Phase Five (ages 18 and above) Scheetz, 2001, p

7 Prereading Phase (Birth – 5)
Parents introduce books, point to pictures and name objects Children are exposed to print Entertained through educational tv shows children start to recognize some words By age 4, children can identify their names I print and a few other words 80% can recognize ‘stop’ and all probably know McDonalds’ “M” Scheetz, 2001, p.139

8 Phase One (Ages 5-7) Children continue to concentrate on decoding single words through 2nd grade Rely on oral language and metalinguistic skills to comprehend the text ½ of kindergarteners and 90% of 1st graders are able to segment words into syllables By end of 1st grade about 70% can segment by phoneme Have acquired graphemic, syllabic, and word knowledge they need to become competent readers Scheetz, 2001, p.140

9 Phase Two (Ages 8-9) Begins to analyze unknown words
Use ability to sound out words, inspect surrounding text, and scrutinizing accompanying pictures, graphs and charts to decipher meaning Scheetz, 2001, p.140

10 Phase Three (Ages 10-14) Major shift in reading process
Decoding skills have become entrenched Focuses attention on comprehending written materials Children develop their abilities to scan written material while gleaning important information Scheetz, 2001, p.140

11 Phase Four (ages 15-18) Incorporate higher level reading skills
Draw on ability to make references and examine varying perspectives and viewpoints found in literature Scheetz, 2001, p.140

12 Phase Five (Ages 18 and above)
Adults are able to read a variety of materials and comprehend the meaning. Scheetz, 2001, p

13 Three Major Approaches To Reading
Bottom Up Models Top Down Models Interactive Models Scheetz, 2001, p

14 Bottom Up Models Stress importance of lower level perceptual and phonemic processing and their influence on higher cognitive functioning Readers analyze letters, decode syllables, and are then able to focus o the meaning of text Reading instruction emphasizes phonetics and the basic rules for translating written symbols Scheetz, 2001, p.141

15 Bottom Up Model Simplified reading material utilized until phonological rules are advanced Identification of letters and words is stressed Emphasis on phonetics in the first three grades According to this theory, children experience difficulty reading because they lack the ability to make the connection between English speech sounds and printed letters. Scheetz, 2001, p.141

16 Top Down Models Known as problem solving models
Focus on the cognitive task of deriving meaning from what lies in the reader’s head The reader forms hypotheses and makes assumptions about what he or she is reading based on his/her knowledge, content of material, and syntactic structures Scheetz, 2001, p

17 Top Down Model The reader comprehends the largest units (meaning) and proceeds downward to the smallest units (letters and words) Has the philosophy that children do not need to be taught to read. They just need to be exposed to reading and writing activities for them to develop ease in accomplishing both tasks Also known as Whole Language or Language Experience Approach Scheetz, 2001, p

18 Interactive Models Reflects principles found in several theories
Considered to be more accurate in explaining how both beginning and mature readers ascertain information Instructors implement both Bottom Up and Top Down Model Both word identification and comprehension are stressed Phonics taught and skills incorporated into the Top Down Model for comprehension Stresses using prior experiences of reader and semantic maps Scheetz, 2001, p

19 The Impact of Deafness on Reading Development
d/c d/p: experience language and reading in the same fashion as h/c h/p d/p continually sign to their children like h/p talks to their infant Later, d/p observe and correct signs of child d/p point to illustrations, connect pictures and later the works to signs Through a combination of mime, gestures, sign and fingerspelling the child begins to develop vocabulary, cultivate concepts and grasp the meaning of printed materials Scheetz, 2001, p

20 Impact of Deafness on Reading Development
12 months hearing child produces 1st work, months: acquire rudimentary syntax Deaf Child: 12 months producing one word signs, months: two-word stage Deaf Child: by age 3 capable of developing a link between fingerspelled letters and the orthographical system of print Scheetz, 2001, p. 144

21 However: Most deaf children are born to hearing parents
Prereading tasks may take a “back burner” to fundamental communication strategies, thus stifling the progression of reading readiness Scheetz, 2001, p

22 Impact of Deafness During Phase One
d/c of d/p arrive at school knowing ASL but that native language is not acceptable or understood d/c of h/p limited English skills and few sign skills English language skills needed to succeed with reading curricula If preliminary skills are not intact, early school years will be devoted to mastering these skills before they can become active, instead of passive readers Scheetz, 2001, p

23 Impact of Deafness During Phase Two
Most deaf individuals do not find phonological recording beneficial Bottom Up Model challenging Will start to lag behind their hearing classmates as they struggle to master the new vocabulary and uncover meaning found within complex sentences Scheetz, 2001, p

24 Impact of Deafness During Phase Three
Multi subjects such as history, science and advanced math Unable to decipher content in these subjects due to nonmastery of English and poor vocabularies Difficulty with both Bottom Up and Top Down Models The gap between hearing and deaf students widens Scheetz, 2001, p

25 Impact of Deafness During Phase Four
Need to read for content Majority still paying attention to the details of reading and refocusing on reading for the sake of reading, not for deriving content Limited vocabularies and weakened grammatical base Reading levels low Complete high school with minimal reading strategies Scheetz, 2001, p

26 Impact of Deafness During Phase Five
Some enter vocational schools or community colleges, some workforce The route they take has a bearing on the reading materials they will encounter Majority of college age deaf students enroll in developmental reading classes Scheetz, 2001, p.149

27 Strategies for Enhancing Reading Through a Multisensory Approach
Some use oral approach Some use simultaneous communication Both approaches beneficial for few students but many others struggle Scheetz, 2001, p

28 David Schleper’s Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success
Principal 1. American Sign Language is used by deaf readers to translate stories Principal 2. Both ASL and English are visible to the deaf child as books are being read Principal 3. Deaf readers feel free to expand sentences found in stories Principal 4. Stories are read repeatedly on a “storytelling” to “story reading” continuum Principal 5. Deaf children lead; deaf readers follow Scheetz, 2001, p

29 Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success
Principal 6. Deaf readers take implied meaning and make it explicit Principal 7. Deaf readers use spatial signs to convey meaning Principal 8. Deaf readers make adjustments in their signing style to bring the character to life Principal 9. Events that occur in stories are connected to the real world Principal 10. Attention maintenance strategies are employed while reading books Scheetz, 2001, p.152

30 Fifteen Principles Necessary for Reading Success
Principal 11. Eye gaze is used to encourage participation Principal 12. Role play is utilized to extend concepts Principal 13. Sign variations are used to represent repetitive English phrases Principal 14. A positive and reinforcing environment is established for deaf readers Principal 15. Deaf children are expected to become literate Scheetz, 2001, p.153

31 Applying the principles to the classroom
Andrews, Winograd, and Deville (1996) proposed prereading instruction be implemented in classroom They did a study to test ASL summary technique Six steps involved in the technique Study showed six steps greatly improved retelling skills and comprehending the moral less found in reading selections Scheetz, 2001, p.154

32 ASL Summary Techniques
“designed to build background knowledge in the reader, activate old background knowledge, and focus the reader’s attention on information in the text before he reads the actual text” (Andrews, Winograd, &Deville, 1996, p.31). Scheetz, 2001, p.154

33 ASL Summary Techniques
Step 1. The teacher gives a summary of a short fable in ASL. Step 2. The student independently reads the fable. Step 3. The student individually retells all he or she can remember about the text. Step 4. The student tells the moral lesson of the fable to the teacher. Step 5. The teacher and the student discuss the student’s retelling and moral lesson response. Step 6. The teacher fills in semantic and conceptual gaps. Scheetz, 2001, p.154


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