Presentation on theme: "Past Year Questions (10)4 Q.7 (a)(i) Shortage of labour –prefer to work for oil companies or work in offices and shops in the towns –Most of the farmers."— Presentation transcript:
Past Year Questions (10)4 Q.7 (a)(i) Shortage of labour –prefer to work for oil companies or work in offices and shops in the towns –Most of the farmers are part-time farmers –Young people are attracted to towns
Infertile soils Like other South-East Asian countries, Brunei has generally poor soils. In the lowlands, the soils are often waterlogged and are very acidic. All Brunei soils need the addition of lime to reduce acidity and fertilisers are needed to fertilise the soils.
Traditional farming methods –Simple hand tools are used; hoes for loosening the soil, hand knives and sickles for weeding.
Soil erosion –The fertility of the soil declines quickly under the hot sun and heavy downpours of rain.
Question 7(a) (10)4 (ii) Refer pg 92 –Improving living conditions –to make kampong life more attractive, –building new roads, facilities –providing good services –Providing agriculture training schemes for young people –Providing Agriculture Extension Officer and Agriculture Station in all districts
Setting up farm co-operatives to buy seeds, fertilizers and to share machinery. Young Farmers Land Scheme (e.g. at Labi and Kampong Junjungan). –Young farmers are given land and capital to start a farm.
(iii) The population is growing rapidly (from 267 000 in 1992 to 350 000 in 2003) Brunei is NOT an important agricultural country. Less than fifteen percent of the land is cultivated Due to the high living standard, Brunei cannot grow crops as cheaply as poorer parts of the south-east Asia. Hence, imported vegetables are cheaper than the vegetables produced locally.
(b) (iii) Market garden takes place in Mulaut-Lumapas. (b) (iv) Young farmers are given land and capital to start a farm. Water supply is available from the rain as well as the piped water. Water sprinklers are used to control the timing of watering crops and the exact quantities to use.
–Labour supplies come from their own family members since the farming is family own. Some local market gardeners employ foreign workers such as Indonesian and Indian workers to grow the vegetables. –The market gardens are near to the main roads so farm outputs can be sent to the market in fresh conditions.
Question 8 (a) i. Subsistence farming – growing of crops or rearing of animals for farmers’ own use. Cash crop farming – growing crops for sale.
ii. Brunei is not an important agricultural country. Only a small area of land is cultivated. Less than fifteen percent of the land is cultivated, resulting in low agricultural output and continued dependence on the importation of food from abroad.
(b) i.Shifting cultivation is carried out in the interior of Brunei such as in Ulu Tutong. Market garden takes place in Mulaut-Lumapas.
(ii) Shifting cultivation Shifting cultivators choose steep forested areas because it is easier to cut the trees and the slopes are well drained. The hot and wet climate throughout the year allow a variety of crops to grow.
Farming activities are done according to climate conditions. Forests are cleared during the dry season so that it is easier to burn the undergrowth and trees. It does not require large amount of capital as the farmers do not use chemical fertilizers, pesticides and machineries in their farms.
(c) Most of the people prefer to work for oil companies or work in offices and shops in the towns than farming. Farming is relatively unattractive in Brunei since the work is hard and the profit is small compared to work on other industries.
Q.3 (10)2 (a) i.Growing of crops and rearing of animals for own use. ii. The land is fragmented and small, mostly covering less than 2 hectares which is uneconomic to farm. The small plots produce little yield.
In the case of tenant farmers, a large proportion of their harvest goes to their landlords. Poverty among farmers is an obstacle to inject capital into the farms to increase yields. The poor farmers can hardly afford to buy fertilisers, pesticides and machines to increase the yield.
Subsistence farmers in parts of Monsoon Asia tend to be illiterate and resistant to changes in farming practises, sticking to their traditional farming methods. As such, the quality and quantity of the crops do not improve and may even decline.
iii.As long as there is little or no surplus of crops to be sold, it is impossible for subsistence farmers to escape from these problems. iv.Many countries in Asia have benefited from the use of the HYVs which mature faster and produce more yield.. E.g. Indonesia used to import 25% of the rice in the 1960s but was able to export rice in the late 1980s.
Traditional varieties need 150 days to mature after transplanting, the HYVs mature about 50 days earlier. Double- or triple- cropping is available to increase farm yields. Many small and fragmented farms have been consolidated into large farms to make it easier for irrigation and drainage facilities to be built and used.