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INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSAY PART ONE: The Introductory Paragraph Prof. N. Dawkins Miami-Dade Community College North Campus These materials were developed.

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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSAY PART ONE: The Introductory Paragraph Prof. N. Dawkins Miami-Dade Community College North Campus These materials were developed."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTRODUCTION TO THE ESSAY PART ONE: The Introductory Paragraph Prof. N. Dawkins Miami-Dade Community College North Campus These materials were developed from program texts and materials contributed by Professors: L. Biaggi L. Biaggi N. Dawkins L. Pierre-Philippe Multimedia by Prof. Williams

2 Diagram of a Paragraph I. Topic Sentence A. Major Support minor support B. Major Support minor support C. Major Support minor support II. Conclusion

3 Diagram of an Essay I. Introductory Paragraph I. Body Paragraph 1 II. Body Paragraph 2 III. Body Paragraph 3 IV. Concluding Paragraph

4 Topic Sentence A. Major Support minor support B. Major Support minor support C. Major Support minor support II. Conclusion Introductory Paragraph A. General Statements 1.Opener sentence 2.Elaborator sentence 3.Bridge sentence B. Thesis Statement Introductory Paragraph A. General Statements 1.Opener sentence 2.Elaborator sentence 3.Bridge sentence B. Thesis Statement II. Body Paragraph 1 A. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*) III. Body Paragraph 2 B. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*) III. Body Paragraph 2 B. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*) IV. Conclusion Restatement or summary of the major points and a final comment. IV. Conclusion Restatement or summary of the major points and a final comment.

5 Introductory Paragraph A. General Statements 1. Opener sentence 2. Elaborator sentence 3. Bridge sentence B. Thesis Statement Introductory Paragraph A. General Statements 1. Opener sentence 2. Elaborator sentence 3. Bridge sentence B. Thesis Statement Topic Sentence Comparison Breakdown

6 II. Body Paragraph 1 A. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*) II. Body Paragraph 1 A. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*) A. Major Support minor support A. Major Support minor support

7 B. Major Support minor support B. Major Support minor support III. Body Paragraph 2 B. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*) III. Body Paragraph 2 B. Topic Sentence 1. Major Support a. minor support 2. Major Support a. minor support (Conclusion*)

8 II. Conclusion IV. Conclusion Restatement or summary of the major points and a final comment IV. Conclusion Restatement or summary of the major points and a final comment

9 The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph in an essay. It serves to capture the reader’s attention and inspire him or her to continue to read the rest of the composition. Therefore, the introductory paragraph is very important. It has two parts. It consists of the general statements (3-5 sentences) and the thesis statement. General statements do not contain the major support. The thesis statement must contain major supports. Let’s examine these two parts carefully. Part 1: General Statements (3-5 sentences) 1. Sentence # 1 is called the opener. a. 1 or 2 questions related to the general topic When was the last time you used public transportation? How was your experience? b. comment about the past that is related to the general topic Fifteen years ago, Miami-Dade County officials made a commitment to improving public transportation. There are five basic types of openers. c. a description (or definition) of the general topic Public transportation is a system for conveying a large number of people conveniently and inexpensively

10 Public transportation is an important service to the people of a large county like Miami-Dade County. d. a personal anecdote related to the general topic I was ten years old when I took my first ride on the Metro Rail. e. an explanation of the importance or relevance of the general topic 2. Sentence # 2 is called the elaborator. One or two sentences which explain (elaborate) the opener. The elaborator is still general because it serves to clarify the first sentence (opener). The elaborator can provide more information about the topic, or the elaborator can state a reason for the situation expressed in the opener. Examples: a. When was the last time you used public transportation? How was your experience? Using public transportation should not be unpleasant. b. Fifteen years ago, Miami-Dade County officials made a commitment to improving public transportation. Several millions of dollars were set aside to design a public transportation system for the entire county.

11 e. Public transportation is an important service to the people of a large county like Miami-Dade County. People must have transportation to satisfy many important needs. c. Public transportation is a system for conveying a large number of people conveniently and inexpensively. This system should meet the daily transportation needs of thousands of residents and visitors. d. I was ten years old when I took my first ride on the Metro Rail. This was an important day for the entire community.

12 b. Fifteen years ago, Miami-Dade County officials made a commitment to improving public transportation. Several millions of dollars were set aside to design a public transportation system for the entire county. County leaders promised a “state of the art” system would be operational by the year Sentence # 3 is called the bridge. The bridge connects the first two general statements to the thesis. This sentence is more specific than the first two sentences. It can refer to the actual focus of the essay. The bridge can connect to the thesis by making a contrast between the first two sentences and the thesis. Another way the bridge can connect to the thesis is by adding a specific statement or question. Examples: a. When was the last time you used public transportation? How was your experience? Using public transportation should not be unpleasant. But, many public transportation users feel that the system is unpleasant.

13 e. Public transportation is an important service to the people of a large county like Miami-Dade County. People must have transportation to satisfy many important needs. How would we do this without a car? c. Public transportation is a system for conveying a large number of people conveniently and inexpensively. The system should meet the daily transportation needs of thousands of residents and visitors. What are some of the features of an effective public transportation system for Miami-Dade County? d. I was ten years old when I took my first ride on the Metro Rail. This was an important day for the entire community. It was the opening day of the first Metro Rail station in Hialeah, and I will never forget it.

14 *Note: When introducing the major points in the thesis, use colons ( : ) after nouns or noun equivalents such as gerunds, and not after verbs. Part 2: Thesis Statement (the last sentence) 4. Sentence # 4 is the thesis statement. It is the last sentence in the introductory paragraph of an essay. It is preceded by the 3 – 5 general statements about the topic. The thesis statement explains the focus of the essay, and it is specific. It is sometimes called the “topic sentence” of an essay. At the advanced level, a thesis statement must meet the criteria listed below. It must: a. state the focus of the essay b. indicate the essay type. (process, cause, effect, definition, comparison, contrast, classification, argument, etc.) c. identify 2 – 3 major points which are expressed in parallel grammatical forms d. be written in 1 sentence e. be punctuated correctly

15 b. Fifteen years ago, Miami-Dade County officials made a commitment to improving public transportation. Several millions of dollars were set aside to design a public transportation system for the entire county. County leaders promised a “state of the art” system would be operational by the year The Metro Rail system of Miami-Dade County has modern high speed trains and clean beautiful stations. Examples: a. When was the last time you used public transportation? How was your experience? Using public transportation should not be unpleasant. But, many public transportation users feel that the system is unpleasant. Public transportation has two unpleasant qualities: rigid routes and unreliable schedules.

16 e. Public transportation is an important service to the people of a large county like Miami-Dade County. People must have transportation to satisfy many important needs. How would we do this without a car? Work and shopping transport needs can be fulfilled by public transportation. c. Public transportation is a system for conveying a large number of people conveniently and inexpensively. The system should meet the daily transportation needs of thousands of residents and visitors. What are some of the features of an effective public transportation system for Miami-Dade County? Reliable schedules and strategic destinations are two critical features of an effective public transportation system. d. I was ten years old when I took my first ride on the Metro Rail. This was an important day for the entire community. It was the opening day of the first Metro Rail station in Hialeah, and I will never forget it. The inaugural ride from the Okeechobee Station to the Metro Dade Government Center was both historic and exciting.

17 3. To be fully prepared for a hurricane requires the following: getting supplies, protecting one’s home, and staying informed. More examples of thesis statements: 1. Three requirements to be fully prepared in the event of a hurricane are getting supplies, protecting one’s home, and staying informed. 2. To be fully prepared for a hurricane, South Floridians must get supplies, protect their homes, and stay informed.

18 two unpleasant qualities: rigid routes and unreliable schedules. Body Paragraphs a. When was the last time you used public education? How was your experience? Using public transportation should not be unpleasant. But, many public transportation users feel that the system is unpleasant. Public transportation has

19 The fixed and limited routes of the public transportation system limit its usefulness for many people who work in rural areas. For example, there are no Metro-rail stations in the far northern and southern boundaries of the county. As a result, residents of these outlying areas are limited in their ability to participate in the employment and entertainment opportunities of metro Miami and Miami Beach.

20 Additionally, because buses and trains are not always punctual, they cannot confidently be used by people who must report to work at a specific time. In an informal survey of 200 public transportation patrons, 90 percent reported that a bus or train had been more than 15 minutes late at least one day a week for the past four weeks. This inefficiency can have serious consequences. When a bus or train arrives fifteen minutes late, it is not always a minor irritation, it may cost a commuter his or her job.

21 b. Fifteen years ago, Miami-Dade County officials made a commitment to improving public transportation. Several million dollars were set aside to design a public transportation system for the entire county. County leaders promised a “state of the art” system would be operational by the year The Metro Rail system of Miami-Dade County has modern high-speed trains and clean beautiful stations.

22 The Metrorail is often the fastest way to get to heavily trafficked destinations in the county. The train has a top speed of 55 mph and is not slowed by red lights and stop signs. Even though trains must stop at stations, each stop averages only 3 minutes. As a result, the Metrorail covers rush-hour routes much faster that the average commuter driving the same route. During rush hour, a train is scheduled to arrive at each station every six minutes.

23 Metrorail stations are also very attractive. They are well-lighted, well-maintained, and staffed with 24-hour security. Furthermore, Metro’s Art in Transit Program selects artists to show their work in Metrorail stations. Anyone patronizing the Metrorail will be pleasantly surprised to find original works of painting and sculpture gracing the walls of the train stations.

24 c. Public transportation is a system for conveying a large number of people conveniently and inexpensively. The system should meet the daily transportation requirements of thousands of residents and visitors. What are some of the features of an effective public transportation system for Miami-Dade County? Reliable schedules and strategic destinations are two critical features of an effective public transportation system.

25 For patrons to have confidence in public transportation, service must be consistent and punctual. Users must know that by relying on the posted arrival and departure times, they will never be late for work. In Miami, The Metrorail promises a train every six minutes during rush hour and every fifteen minutes during midday hours. Customers should be able to rely on these projections.

26 Additionally, a competent transportation system provides ample coverage of the most heavily traveled areas of a city. Service to downtown, major malls, and the beaches should be frequent and staffed with several buses and/or trains. Also, additional resources should be allocated for special events, such as major concerts or sporting events, for which vastly increased usage is projected.

27 d. I was ten years old when I took my first ride on the Metrorail. This was an important day for the entire community. It was the opening day of the first Metrorail station in Hialeah, and I will never forget it. The inaugural ride from the Okeechobee Station to the Metro Dade Government Center was both historic and exciting.

28 Part of the thrill was knowing that what I was doing was a first. I could also sense the pride of my fellow passengers over the modernization of Miami. Like Chicago, San Francisco, and New York, Miami now had its very own train system. Of course later hundreds of thousands of people would ride the train, but on that day I was doing something unique in the history of Miami.

29 It was also exciting simply because I had never been on a train before. Racing at fifty miles per hour high above the ground gave me the feeling of flying. As I watched the housed and cars whiz by me below, it was as if I was in a futuristic hovercraft. For a ten-year-old child with an active imagination, it was an incredible adventure.

30 e. Public transportation is an important service to the people of a large county like Miami-Dade County. People must have transportation to satisfy many important needs. How would we do this without a car? Work and shopping transport needs can be fulfilled by public transportation.

31 An estimated twenty percent of the 1,700,000 adults in Miami-Dade do not own cars. Many of these 340,000 people are employed in service industries that require them to travel to large employment centers, such as shopping centers, hotels, hospitals, or the airport. Without public transportation, most of these workers could not fill many of the service-related positions that are so crucial to Miami’s economy.

32 The same workers that help others to spend money are valuable consumers in their own right. These workers spend millions of dollars annually on necessities and entertainment. The malls, movie theatres, and nightclubs of Miami owe part of their profitability to the dollars of these service workers. Businesses also are indebted to a reliable transportation system that carries these shoppers to their destinations.


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