Elements of Form We have learned that form is manipulated by-- Repetition Contrast Variation
Let’s look closer at variation-- Variation combines repetition with contrast. The variation may be mostly contrast with two or more new melodies. Or, the variation may take the same theme and alter it either melodically, rhythmically, or harmonically. Altering melodies is referred to as development. Development is also the term used to refer to sections where variations take place. Development offers a true blend of repetition and contrast.
Introduction-- The beginning section to prepare the listener for the thematic material. It may be a very short or an extended section Thematic-- A section which presents the primary melodic materials (theme) of a composition. A piece of music may have more than one theme. Thematic material is labeled with capital letters-- A B C Thematic and Introductory
Connecting Sections Connecting sections provide a sense of movement to or rest from the themes. Transition Connecting Section to prepare listener for the theme that follows often by building a sense of anticipation which is resolved by the theme Interlude Connecting Section occurring between thematic sections that uses contrasting material to provide rest from previous theme.
Concluding Sections Coda Concluding Section that brings a work to a close Codetta Internal concluding section that brings a section to a close
Binary Form Two-part (A-B) Ternary Form Three-part (A-B-A) Compound Binary + Ternary Theme and Variation A – A’ – A’’ etc. Rondo A-B-A-C-A (five-part) A-B-A-C-A-B-A (seven-part) Sectional Forms
Sonata Form Sonata form is the form for a single movement within a multi-movement work. It is a sectional work consisting of the exposition, development, and the recapitulation.
Exposition The opening of a sonata form is the exposition. It presents the thematic material which will be used in the work. The number of themes can vary, but two contrasting themes (with a codetta) is common.
Development After stating the themes in the exposition section, the piece moves into the section which varies the thematic content through melodic, rhythmic, harmonic or timbral variations.
Recapitulation The recapitulation is the repetition of the exposition section (with certain modifications). The second theme which was originally stated in a different key from the first theme is now played in the first key. The development and recap sections may be repeated.
Complete Classical Sonata Multimovement work, typically 3 or 4 movements, some of which are sonata form. It was used in the late 18th century to the end of the 19th century for most multi-movement instrumental works.
Movement Tempo Typical Form(s) First Fast Sonata Second Slow Sonata Theme and Var. Third (opt.) Mod/Fast Comp. Ternary Final Fast Sonata T and V Rondo Classical Sonata
Performance Venues in Vienna Chamber Music Social Music Parties and Celebrations Larger Concerts Gala Occasions Charity Concerts Subscription Series Opera
Franz Joseph Haydn [1732-1809] First Viennese School Age of Aristocratic Patronage Prince(s) Esterházy