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Chapter Twenty-Five Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech.

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1 Chapter Twenty-Five Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech

2 Chapter Twenty Five Table of Contents zWhat is an Argument? zVariations in Argument: Types of Claims, Evidence, and Warrants zFallacies in Reasoning

3 What is an Argument? zArgument: a stated position with support for or against an idea or issue.

4 What is an Argument? zStating a Claim zProviding Evidence zGiving Warrants

5 What is an Argument? Stating a Claim zClaim: declares a state of affairs, often stated as a thesis statement. zAnswers the question, “What are you trying to prove?”

6 What is an Argument? Providing Evidence zEvidence: material that provides grounds for belief in a claim. zFor example, s tatistics, testimony, facts, examples, and narratives.

7 What is an Argument? Providing Evidence zThe goal of evidence is to make a claim more acceptable or believable to the audience.

8 What is an Argument? Giving Warrants zWarrant: a statement that provides the logical connection between evidence and a claim.

9 What is an Argument? Giving Warrants zWrite down the claim. zList each possible piece of evidence you have in support of the claim. zWrite down the corresponding warrants that link the evidence to the claim.

10 Variations in Argument: Types of Claims, Evidence, and Warrants zTypes of Claims zTypes of Evidence zTypes of Warrants zAddressing the Other Side

11 Variations in Argument: Types of Claims zClaims of fact: focus on whether something is or is not true, or will or will not happen zClaims of value: address issues of judgment zClaims of policy: recommend a specific course of action to be approved of or taken

12 Variations in Argument: Types of Evidence zAudience Knowledge and Opinions zSpeaker Knowledge and Opinions zExternal Evidence

13 Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants zMotivational warrants: focus on the needs, desires, emotions, and values of audience. zAuthoritative warrants: rely on the audience’s beliefs about the credibility or acceptability of a source of evidence.

14 Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants zSubstantive warrants operate on the basis of an audience’s beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence.

15 Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants zWarrants by cause: offer a cause-and- effect relationship as proof for a claim zWarrants by analogy: compare two similar cases and infer that what is true in one is true in the other

16 Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants zWarrants by sign: infer that such a close relationship exists between two variables that the presence or action of one may be taken as the presence or action of the other.

17 Variations in Argument: Addressing the Other Side zAll attempts at persuasion are subject to counter persuasion. zInoculation effect: by anticipating counterarguments and addressing or rebutting them, you can “inoculate” your listeners against the “virus” of these other viewpoints.

18 Fallacies in Reasoning: The Pitfalls of Arguing zLogical fallacy: a false or erroneous statement, or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning. zBe aware of fallacies!

19 Fallacies in Reasoning: The Pitfalls of Arguing zBegging the Question zBandwagoning zEither-Or Fallacy zAd Hominem Argument zRed Herring

20 Fallacies in Reasoning: Begging the Question zStating an argument in such a way that it cannot help but be true even though no evidence has been presented.

21 Fallacies in Reasoning: Bandwagoning zPhrasing arguments as if they were true because “general opinion” supports them.

22 Fallacies in Reasoning: Either-Or Fallacy zPoses an argument in terms of two alternatives only, even though there may be multiple ways of viewing the issue.

23 Fallacies in Reasoning: Ad Hominem Argument zAttacking an opponent instead of the opponent’s argument.

24 Fallacies in Reasoning: Red Herring zArguments that rely on irrelevant information.


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