Presentation on theme: "Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech"— Presentation transcript:
1Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech Chapter Twenty-FiveDeveloping Arguments for the Persuasive Speech
2Chapter Twenty Five Table of Contents What is an Argument? Variations in Argument: Types of Claims, Evidence, and WarrantsFallacies in Reasoning
3What is an Argument?Argument: a stated position with support for or against an idea or issue.
4What is an Argument? Stating a Claim Providing Evidence Giving Warrants
5What is an Argument? Stating a Claim Claim: declares a state of affairs, often stated as a thesis statement.Answers the question, “What are you trying to prove?”
6What is an Argument? Providing Evidence Evidence: material that provides grounds for belief in a claim.For example, statistics, testimony, facts, examples, and narratives.
7What is an Argument? Providing Evidence The goal of evidence is to make a claim more acceptable or believable to the audience.
8What is an Argument? Giving Warrants Warrant: a statement that provides the logical connection between evidence and a claim.
9What is an Argument? Giving Warrants Write down the claim.List each possible piece of evidence you have in support of the claim.Write down the corresponding warrants that link the evidence to the claim.
10Variations in Argument: Types of Claims, Evidence, and Warrants Types of EvidenceTypes of WarrantsAddressing the Other Side
11Variations in Argument: Types of Claims Claims of fact: focus on whether something is or is not true, or will or will not happenClaims of value: address issues of judgmentClaims of policy: recommend a specific course of action to be approved of or taken
12Variations in Argument: Types of Evidence Audience Knowledge and OpinionsSpeaker Knowledge and OpinionsExternal Evidence
13Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants Motivational warrants: focus on the needs, desires, emotions, and values of audience.Authoritative warrants: rely on the audience’s beliefs about the credibility or acceptability of a source of evidence.
14Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants Substantive warrants operate on the basis of an audience’s beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence.
15Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants Warrants by cause: offer a cause-and-effect relationship as proof for a claimWarrants by analogy: compare two similar cases and infer that what is true in one is true in the other
16Variations in Argument: Types of Warrants Warrants by sign: infer that such a close relationship exists between two variables that the presence or action of one may be taken as the presence or action of the other.
17Variations in Argument: Addressing the Other Side All attempts at persuasion are subject to counter persuasion.Inoculation effect: by anticipating counterarguments and addressing or rebutting them, you can “inoculate” your listeners against the “virus” of these other viewpoints.
18Fallacies in Reasoning: The Pitfalls of Arguing Logical fallacy: a false or erroneous statement, or an invalid or deceptive line of reasoning.Be aware of fallacies!
19Fallacies in Reasoning: The Pitfalls of Arguing Begging the QuestionBandwagoningEither-Or FallacyAd Hominem ArgumentRed Herring
20Fallacies in Reasoning: Begging the Question Stating an argument in such a way that it cannot help but be true even though no evidence has been presented.
21Fallacies in Reasoning: Bandwagoning Phrasing arguments as if they were true because “general opinion” supports them.
22Fallacies in Reasoning: Either-Or Fallacy Poses an argument in terms of two alternatives only, even though there may be multiple ways of viewing the issue.
23Fallacies in Reasoning: Ad Hominem Argument Attacking an opponent instead of the opponent’s argument.
24Fallacies in Reasoning: Red Herring Arguments that rely on irrelevant information.