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Chapter Fifteen The Bureaucracy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 2 Key Questions and Objectives 1.Compare and contrast.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fifteen The Bureaucracy Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 2 Key Questions and Objectives 1.Compare and contrast."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter Fifteen The Bureaucracy

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 2 Key Questions and Objectives 1.Compare and contrast the United States and British models of government bureaucracy. 2.Sketch the history of the executive branch bureaucracy and the different uses to which it has been put. 3.Discuss the recruitment, retention, and demographic profiles of federal bureaucrats. 4.Show how the roles and missions of the agencies are affected by internal and external factors. 5.Review congressional measures to control the bureaucracy and evaluate their effectiveness. 6.List the “ pathologies ” that may affect bureaucracies and discuss why it is so difficult to reform the executive branch bureaucracy.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 3 The United States Bureaucracy "Brazil" Ministry of Information Bureaucracy: a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials Men in Black Post Office Scene Political authority over the bureaucracy is shared by president and Congress Federal agencies share functions with related state and local government agencies Harry Potter Ministry of Magic THEME A: SIZE AND POWER OF THE BUREAUCRACY

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 4

6 U.S. Department of State Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 5

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8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 7 Bureaucratic Organization or Disorganization?

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 8 Growth of the Bureaucracy Patronage in the 19 th and early 20 th centuries rewarded supporters, induced congressional support, and built party organizations The Civil War showed the administrative weakness of the federal government and increased demands for civil service reform

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 9 Growth of the Bureaucracy The post-Civil War period saw industrialization and the emergence of a national economy The power of national government to regulate interstate commerce became necessary and controversial

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 10 Expansion of the Bureaucracy The Depression and World War II led to government activism The Supreme Court upheld laws that granted discretion to administrative agencies Heavy use of income taxes supported war effort and a large bureaucracy

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 11 The Impact of 9/11 9/11 attacks could also affect the bureaucracy as profoundly as WWII and the Depression A new cabinet agency (Department of Homeland Security) was created Intelligence-gathering activities were consolidated under a National Intelligence Director

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 12

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 13 Discussion Questions for Theme A 1.Prioritize the three ways in which the U.S. public bureaucracy contrasts with those of other nations. Which of these three characteristics is most relevant to political executives? To civil servants? To the average citizen? Most of the contrasts are rooted in a concern for controlling the bureaucracy, securing greater accountability, and obtaining responsiveness from the executive branch. Have these goals been realized?

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 14 2.Supreme Court cases notwithstanding, to what extent does patronage continue to influence political appointments in the federal and state governments? In regard to the federal government, consider presidential appointment politics, which seek to reward and incorporate influential interests. Think about personal experiences at the federal and state levels, as family employment and internships are often influenced by party affiliations. Contrasts between the states should be considered because differing patronage practices may suggest differences in political cultures. 3.How do you measure the power of a bureaucracy? For example, do you think about the number of people employed or the size of its budget or the breadth of its agenda, or other factors? Why do you rely on one measure rather than another? Note that the book, while concluding that power is measured most accurately in terms of discretionary authority, acknowledges that it has also been assessed in terms of budgets and staffing. Good Will Hunting/NSAGood Will Hunting/NSA

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 15 Growth of the Bureaucracy Today Modest increase in the number of government employees Significant indirect increase in number of employees through use of private contractors, state and local government employees Bill Maher clip on the outsourcing of military operations in IraqBill Maher clip on the outsourcing of military operations in Iraq Growth in discretionary authority Frontline: Private Warriors THEME B: CONTROL OF THE BUREAUCRACY

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 16 Figure 15.2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations Expenditures and employment: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 483 and 582; regulations; Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Miemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Washington D.C>: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), tables 6-12, Post-2000 data updated by Marc Siegal. 1.Why is there a spike at the beginning of this chart? 2.What is the overall trend of our economy dedicated to the federal government?

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 17 Figure 15.2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations Expenditures and employment: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 483 and 582; regulations; Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Miemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Washington D.C>: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), tables 6-12, Post-2000 data updated by Marc Siegal.

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 18 Figure 15.2: Federal Government: Money, People, and Regulations Expenditures and employment: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 483 and 582; regulations; Harold W. Stanley and Richard G. Miemi, Vital Statistics on American Politics (Washington D.C>: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1998), tables 6-12, Post-2000 data updated by Marc Siegal. 1.What are pages in the federal registrar associated with?

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 19 Recruitment and Retention Competitive service: bureaucrats compete for jobs through OPM Appointment by merit based on written exam or through selection criteria Scene from comedy “Spies Like Us”; Chevy Chase and Dan Akroyd try to pass exam to become CIA spiesScene from comedy “Spies Like Us”; Chevy Chase and Dan Akroyd try to pass exam to become CIA spies service/selection-processhttp://www.careers.state.gov/civil- service/selection-process

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 20 Table 15.1: Minority Employment in the Federal Bureaucracy by Rank, 2000

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 21 Figure 15.3: Characteristics of Federal Civilian Employees, 1960 and 1999 Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1961, ; Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2000, Nos. 450, 482, 500, 595, 1118.

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 22 Recruitment and Retention Competitive service system has become more decentralized, less reliant on OPM referral Excepted service: bureaucrats appointed by agencies, typically in a nonpartisan fashion

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 23 Firing a Bureaucrat Most bureaucrats cannot be easily fired The Senior Executive Service (SES) was established to provide the president and cabinet with more control in personnel decisions But very few SES members have actually been fired

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 24 Carrying Out Policy Most bureaucrats try to carry out policy, even those they disagree with But bureaucrats do have obstructive powers— Whistleblower Protection Act (1989) FBI Whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg and Bradley Manning Bradley Manning Most civil servants have highly structured jobs that make their personal attitudes irrelevant

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 25 Constraints on the Bureaucracy Constraints are much greater on government agencies than on private bureaucracies Hiring, firing, pay, and other procedures are established by law, not by the market Unions and Homeland Security Constraints come from citizens: agencies try to respond to citizen demands for openness, honesty, and fairness Red tape is the consequence of politics: people don’t want to give up power!

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 26 Agency Allies Agencies often seek alliances with congressional committees and interest groups These alliances are far less common today—politics has become too complicated Issue networks: groups that regularly debate government policy on certain issues

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 27 Congressional Oversight Congress creates agencies Congress authorizes funds for programs Congressional appropriations provide funds for the agency to spend on its programs Congressional investigations Widows of Blackfoot Security Contractors speak before Congress.Widows of Blackfoot Security Contractors speak before Congress. Congress investigates President's firing of US AttorneysCongress investigates President's firing of US Attorneys

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 28 Discussion Questions for Theme B 1.The text defines bureaucracy as “ a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials. ” What does this mean? Can you envision a large, simple organization? Could such an organization accomplish anything consistently?

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 29 2.The text ’ s definition of bureaucracy includes the phrase “ appointed officials. ” Why do the large, complex organizations in our society not have elected rather than appointed officials? Wouldn ’ t electing officials be more democratic? Should we elect the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), for example? Would this make these officials more responsive to public opinion? What about an Assistant Secretary of Defense? Would the president be more or less able to control the bureaucracy if these officials were independently elected? Would concerted, consistent action be more or less likely if many more officials were elected?

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 30 3.The Pendleton Act has had both beneficial and harmful effects. On the one hand, it has lessened the fear of job loss among civil servants, making the bureaucracy sometimes resistant to presidential direction. On the other hand, bureaucrats should have some immunity to resist improper orders from politically motivated superiors. How can these twin goals of competence and political neutrality be balanced more perfectly than they are today? 4.The text lists four factors that account for the behavior of bureaucrats. Would you want the behavior of bureaucrats to be most heavily determined by (a) the manner in which they are recruited and rewarded; (b) their personal attributes, such as their socioeconomic background and their political attitudes; (c) the nature of the jobs they have; (d) responsiveness to outside forces—political superiors, legislators, interest groups, or journalists? Why? Having reached this conclusion, how much authority would you delegate to bureaucrats manifesting these motivations?

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 31 5.What difference does the buddy system make in federal hiring? Does this system embody the worst of both worlds, allowing appointments neither by a publicly accountable official (such as the president) nor by merit? Are there possible advantages to the buddy system? 6.The Chadha decision invalidated the legislative veto. Why does Congress continue to enact laws with such provisions? Could Congress adequately supervise the exercise of delegated authority by bureaucrats without a legislative veto?

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 32 Bureaucratic Pathologies Red tape: complex, sometimes conflicting rules Conflict: agencies work at cross-purposes Duplication: two or more agencies seem to do the same thing Imperialism: tendency of agencies to grow, irrespective of programs’ benefits and costs Waste: spending more than is necessary to buy some product or service 2000 Bush campaign ad attacking Al Gore and bureaucrats.2000 Bush campaign ad attacking Al Gore and bureaucrats. THEME C: BUREAUCRATIC “PATHOLOGIES”)

34 CROSS LISTING JOBS: DRUG TRAFFICKING (President) Customs Services FBI Drug Enforcement Administration Border Patrol Department of Defense Department of Transportation How does each group contribute? How does this create a mini-system of checks and balances? What are the effects of so many involvements in one single issue? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 33

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 34 Reforming the Bureaucracy National Performance Review (NPR) in 1993 designed to reinvent government calling for less centralized management, more employee initiatives, fewer detailed rules, and more customer satisfaction

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 35 Reforming the Bureaucracy Most rules and red tape are due to struggles between the president and Congress or to agencies’ efforts to avoid alienating influential voters Periods of divided government worsen matters, especially in implementing policy

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.15 | 36 Discussion Questions for Theme C 1.The text says that red tape is partly a consequence of bigness and largely a result of legal and political requirements. Is this a sufficient explanation? Is there more red tape in government than these two factors can explain? Might not bureaucrats have a tendency to be more concerned that elaborate procedures are followed than that certain substantive outcomes happen? Is there a bureaucratic mind-set that might produce this result? 2.Explain why bureaucrats have little motivation to keep costs down. Can this situation be remedied? If so, how?


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