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Chapter Federalism National, State and Local. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 2 Federalism Defined Divides power between.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter Federalism National, State and Local. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 2 Federalism Defined Divides power between."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Federalism National, State and Local

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 2 Federalism Defined Divides power between a central government and state and local governments –Framers favoured moving power from the states to a national government

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 3 THE EVOLUTION OF FEDERALISM DUAL FEDERALISM ( ) STATES AND NATIONAL GOVTS DIVIDE FUNCTIONS. –Congress handled enumerated powers (Art.1; Sec. 8) –States handled reserved powers (Amend 10) –Congress and states both handled concurrent powers

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 4 Principles of Dual Federalism

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 5 Mc Culloch v. Maryland Chief Justice John Marshall use of "Necessary and Proper Clause,“

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 6 Phase II Cooperative Federalism ( ) NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND STATES EXERCISED RESPONSIBILITIES FOR WELFARE, HEALTH, HIGHWAYS, EDUCATION, AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE.

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 7 Why Cooperative Federalism? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL ECONOMY FEDERAL INCOME TAX SHIFTS $$ TO NATIONAL GOVERNMENT (Amend. 16) TWO WORLD WARS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION. MAJOR SHIFT IN FDR ERA

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 8 Cooperative Federalism in Action GRANTS IN AID –Combined federal funding with state administration –Funds provided by one level of government to another for specific purposes –States are required to put up some of their own money: matching grants

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 9 Phase III: Creative Federalism THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DOMINATES STATE GOVERNMENTS – LBJ and War on Poverty, Civil Rights, etc. –Categorical grants which required recipients to apply for funding under specific categories detailing how money would be spent –Bypass States and urban governments to fund organization with Democratic base

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 10 Phase IV New Federalism s Nixon –Backlash to Creative Federalism –More autonomy with states/local govts. –Initially REVENUE SHARING (1972) -- –Later BLOCK GRANTS - funding for policy area, such as community development, education -- let states decide how funds are used.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 11 Federal, State, and Local Government Expenditures Budget of the United States Government: Historical Tables, Fiscal Year 2005; available at

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 12 Phase V Modern Federalism 1980s> Devolution –More powers to state/local governments BUT Pre-emption –Federal government assumes total or partial control in areas of concurrent responsibility AND Unfunded mandates –Federal government requires states and localities to provide certain services but no federal money to cover the costs.

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 13 State Governments Laboratories of democracy –Governors may have more control over state bureaucracies –State legislatures reflect population –State legislatures more professional –Civil right provision have strengthened government; legal barriers to minority voting nearly eliminated

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 14 FEDERAL STATE SHARE Share of tax money significantly skewed to federal government States in financial crisis: most facing bankruptcy. Consequences for public mounting –Case of public schools.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.1 | 15 ABC News: Report Card Case of Public Schools 1.Federal, state, concurrent power? 2.Quality of Education in America? 3.Problems in Education today? 4.Role of State/Local? 5.Role of Federal? 6.Role of federalism in dilemma?


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