Presentation on theme: "Influence, Power, and Leadership"— Presentation transcript:
1 Influence, Power, and Leadership Chapter FifteenInfluence, Power, and Leadership
2 Chapter ObjectivesIdentify and describe eight generic influence tactics used in modern organizations.Identify the five bases of power and explain what it takes to make empowerment work.Explain the concept of emotional intelligence in terms of Goleman’s four leadership traits.Summarize what the Ohio State model and the Leadership Grid® have taught managers about leadership.
3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d) Describe the path-goal theory of leadership and explain how the assumption on which it is based differs from the assumptions on which Fiedler’s contingency theory is based.Describe the transformational leader and explain Greenleaf’s philosophy of the servant leader.Identify the two key functions that mentors perform and explain how a mentor can develop a junior manager’s leadership skills.Explain the management of antecedents and consequences in behavior modification.
4 Influence Tactics in the Workplace Any attempt by a person to change the behavior of superiors, peers, or lower-level employeesIs not inherently good or badCan be used for purely selfish reasonsCan be used to subvert organizational objectivesCan be used to enhance organizational effectiveness
7 PowerWhat Is Power?The ability to marshal the human, informational, and material resources to get something donePower has an effect on:DecisionsBehaviorSituationsTypes of powerPower over: The ability to dominatePower to: The ability to act freelyPower from: The ability to resist the demands of others
8 Figure 15.1: The Relationship Between Authority and Power
9 Five Bases of Power Reward power: Having the ability to grant rewards Coercive power: Gaining compliance through threats or punishmentLegitimate power: Gaining compliance based on the power associated with holding a superior positionReferent power: Gaining compliance based on charisma or personal identificationExpert power: Gaining compliance based on the ability to dispense valued information
10 EmpowermentEmpowerment is making employees full partners in the decision-making process and giving them the necessary tools and rewards.Power is viewed as an unlimited resource.Traditional authoritarian managers feel threatened.Threats to EmpowermentDishonestyUntrustworthinessSelfishnessInadequate skills
11 Leadership Leadership Defined Formal Leadership Informal Leadership The process of inspiring, influencing, and guiding others to participate in a common effortFormal LeadershipThe process of influencing others to pursue official organizational objectivesInformal LeadershipThe process of influencing others to pursue unofficial objectives that may or may not serve the organization’s interests
12 Figure 15.2: The Evolution of Leadership Theory
13 Trait Theory of Leadership The search for universal traits possessed by all leadersAn early trait profile found moderate agreement on five traits:IntelligenceScholarshipDependability in exercising responsibilitiesActivity and social participationSocioeconomic status
14 A Modern Trait Profile: Leaders with Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence (EI): The ability to monitor and control one’s emotions and behavior in complex social settingsLeadership Traits Associated with EISelf-awarenessSelf-managementSocial awarenessRelationship management
15 Male Versus FemaleThe Controversy over Male and Female Leadership TraitsRosener’s research: Female leaders are better at sharing power and information.Later research found no significant differences in the leadership styles of men and women.Women did not fit the female stereotype.Men did not fit the male stereotype.
16 Behavioral Styles Theory of Leadership During World War II, researchers studied the patterns of leader behaviors (leadership styles) rather than who the leader was (traits).Democratic styleAuthoritarian styleLaissez-faire (hands-off) style
18 The Ohio State ModelInitiating structure: Leader’s efforts to get things organized and to get things doneConsideration: The degree of trust, friendship, respect, and warmth that the leader extends to subordinatesFour Leadership StylesLow structure, high considerationHigh structure, high considerationLow structure, low considerationHigh structure, low consideration
19 Figure 15.3: Basic Leadership Styles from the Ohio State Study
20 The Leadership Grid®The belief that there is one best style of leadershipConcern for production: The desire to achieve greater output, cost-effectiveness, and profitsConcern for people: Promoting friendships, helping coworkers get the job done, and attending to things that matter to people
21 Figure 15.4: Blake and McCanse’s Leadership Grid® Reproduced by permission from Leadership Dilemmas-Grid Solutions by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse. Copyright 1991, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, All rights reserved.
22 The Leadership Grid® Styles 9, 1 style: primary concern for production; people secondary1, 9 style: primary concern for people; production secondary1, 1 style: minimal concern for production or people5, 5 style: moderate concern for both production and people to maintain the status quo9, 9 style: high concern for both production and people (commitment, trust, and teamwork)
23 Situational Theories of Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency TheoryPerformance of the leader depends on:The degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence (favorableness of the situation)The leader’s basic motivation to either accomplish the task or have supportive relationships with others (task or relationship motivation)The challenge is to match the leader with a suitable situation. It is easier to move the leader than to change the leader’s style.
24 Figure 15.5: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership
25 Situational Theories of Leadership (cont’d) House’s Updated Path-Goal TheoryDerived from expectancy motivation theoryEffective leaders enhance employee motivation by:Clarifying perceptions of work goalsLinking rewards to goal attainmentExplaining how goals and rewards can be achieved
27 Other Theories of Leadership Transformational Leadership TheoryTransformational leadersAre capable of charting new courses for their organizationAre visionaries who challenge people to do exceptional things, above and beyond the planTransactional leadersMonitor people so they do the expected, according to plan in order to maintain the status quoGet people to do things by offering a reward or threatening them with a punishment
29 Practical Intelligence (Sternberg) The ability to solve everyday problems by utilizing knowledge gained from experienceChanging oneself (adaptation)Changing the work environment (shaping)Finding a new work environment (selection)Skills acquired:Managing oneselfManaging othersManaging tasks
30 The Servant Leader (Greenleaf) An ethical person who puts others—not herself or himself—in the foregroundHis/her first role is as a servant who:Inspires trustMasters feedbackEmphasizes personal developmentArticulates goalsKnows how to listenRelies on foresight
31 Mentoring Learning from a Mentor Mentoring’s Key Functions Mentor: Someone who develops another person through tutoring, coaching, and guidanceMentoring’s Key FunctionsServing as a career enhancement toolProviding psychological support
33 Behavior Modification BehaviorismThe belief that observable behavior is more important than inner states (needs, motives, or expectations)Favorable consequences encourage behavior, whereas unfavorable consequences discourage behavior.Operant ConditioningThe study of how behavior is controlled by the surrounding environment
34 Behavior Modification (cont’d) What Is Behavior Modification?The practical application of operant conditioning techniques to everyday behavior problemsThe systematic management of environmental factors to get people to do the right things more often and the wrong things less oftenManaging the antecedents and/or consequences of observable behavior
35 Managing AntecedentsAntecedent: An environmental cue for a specific behavior to be exhibitedCue control: Controlling the presentation of cues to elicit the desired behaviors at specific places and timesManaging antecedents is a way of encouraging good performance.
37 Managing Consequences Positive reinforcement: Encouraging a behavior with a pleasing consequenceNegative reinforcement: Encouraging a behavior by immediately withdrawing or terminating a displeasing consequenceExtinction: Discouraging a behavior by ignoring itPunishment: Discouraging a behavior by the immediate presentation of an undesirable consequence or the withdrawal of something desirable
38 Behavior Modification (cont’d) Positively Reinforce What Is Right About Job PerformanceBuild up desirable job behaviors by reinforcing the desirable counterpart to an undesirable behavior.Focus on the positive aspects of job performance.Schedule Reinforcement AppropriatelyContinuous reinforcement: Rewarding every instance of a behaviorIntermittent reinforcement: Rewarding some, but not all, instances of a behavior; the most effective form of reinforcement
39 Terms to Understand Influence Power Reward power Coercive power Legitimate powerReferent powerExpert powerEmpowermentLeadershipFormal leadershipInformal leadershipEmotional intelligenceTransformational leaderMentorBehaviorismBehavior modificationAntecedentPositive reinforcementContinuous reinforcementIntermittent reinforcement