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Influence, Power, and Leadership

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1 Influence, Power, and Leadership
Chapter Fifteen Influence, Power, and Leadership

2 Chapter Objectives Identify and describe eight generic influence tactics used in modern organizations. Identify the five bases of power and explain what it takes to make empowerment work. Explain the concept of emotional intelligence in terms of Goleman’s four leadership traits. Summarize what the Ohio State model and the Leadership Grid® have taught managers about leadership.

3 Chapter Objectives (cont’d)
Describe the path-goal theory of leadership and explain how the assumption on which it is based differs from the assumptions on which Fiedler’s contingency theory is based. Describe the transformational leader and explain Greenleaf’s philosophy of the servant leader. Identify the two key functions that mentors perform and explain how a mentor can develop a junior manager’s leadership skills. Explain the management of antecedents and consequences in behavior modification.

4 Influence Tactics in the Workplace
Any attempt by a person to change the behavior of superiors, peers, or lower-level employees Is not inherently good or bad Can be used for purely selfish reasons Can be used to subvert organizational objectives Can be used to enhance organizational effectiveness

5 Eight Generic Influence Tactics
Consultation Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Ingratiating tactics Coalition tactics Pressure tactics Upward appeals Exchange tactics


7 Power What Is Power? The ability to marshal the human, informational, and material resources to get something done Power has an effect on: Decisions Behavior Situations Types of power Power over: The ability to dominate Power to: The ability to act freely Power from: The ability to resist the demands of others

8 Figure 15.1: The Relationship Between Authority and Power

9 Five Bases of Power Reward power: Having the ability to grant rewards
Coercive power: Gaining compliance through threats or punishment Legitimate power: Gaining compliance based on the power associated with holding a superior position Referent power: Gaining compliance based on charisma or personal identification Expert power: Gaining compliance based on the ability to dispense valued information

10 Empowerment Empowerment is making employees full partners in the decision-making process and giving them the necessary tools and rewards. Power is viewed as an unlimited resource. Traditional authoritarian managers feel threatened. Threats to Empowerment Dishonesty Untrustworthiness Selfishness Inadequate skills

11 Leadership Leadership Defined Formal Leadership Informal Leadership
The process of inspiring, influencing, and guiding others to participate in a common effort Formal Leadership The process of influencing others to pursue official organizational objectives Informal Leadership The process of influencing others to pursue unofficial objectives that may or may not serve the organization’s interests

12 Figure 15.2: The Evolution of Leadership Theory

13 Trait Theory of Leadership
The search for universal traits possessed by all leaders An early trait profile found moderate agreement on five traits: Intelligence Scholarship Dependability in exercising responsibilities Activity and social participation Socioeconomic status

14 A Modern Trait Profile: Leaders with Emotional Intelligence
Emotional Intelligence (EI): The ability to monitor and control one’s emotions and behavior in complex social settings Leadership Traits Associated with EI Self-awareness Self-management Social awareness Relationship management

15 Male Versus Female The Controversy over Male and Female Leadership Traits Rosener’s research: Female leaders are better at sharing power and information. Later research found no significant differences in the leadership styles of men and women. Women did not fit the female stereotype. Men did not fit the male stereotype.

16 Behavioral Styles Theory of Leadership
During World War II, researchers studied the patterns of leader behaviors (leadership styles) rather than who the leader was (traits). Democratic style Authoritarian style Laissez-faire (hands-off) style


18 The Ohio State Model Initiating structure: Leader’s efforts to get things organized and to get things done Consideration: The degree of trust, friendship, respect, and warmth that the leader extends to subordinates Four Leadership Styles Low structure, high consideration High structure, high consideration Low structure, low consideration High structure, low consideration

19 Figure 15.3: Basic Leadership Styles from the Ohio State Study

20 The Leadership Grid® The belief that there is one best style of leadership Concern for production: The desire to achieve greater output, cost-effectiveness, and profits Concern for people: Promoting friendships, helping coworkers get the job done, and attending to things that matter to people

21 Figure 15.4: Blake and McCanse’s Leadership Grid®
Reproduced by permission from Leadership Dilemmas-Grid Solutions by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse. Copyright 1991, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, All rights reserved.

22 The Leadership Grid® Styles
9, 1 style: primary concern for production; people secondary 1, 9 style: primary concern for people; production secondary 1, 1 style: minimal concern for production or people 5, 5 style: moderate concern for both production and people to maintain the status quo 9, 9 style: high concern for both production and people (commitment, trust, and teamwork)

23 Situational Theories of Leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Performance of the leader depends on: The degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence (favorableness of the situation) The leader’s basic motivation to either accomplish the task or have supportive relationships with others (task or relationship motivation) The challenge is to match the leader with a suitable situation. It is easier to move the leader than to change the leader’s style.

24 Figure 15.5: Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership

25 Situational Theories of Leadership (cont’d)
House’s Updated Path-Goal Theory Derived from expectancy motivation theory Effective leaders enhance employee motivation by: Clarifying perceptions of work goals Linking rewards to goal attainment Explaining how goals and rewards can be achieved

26 Situational Theories of Leadership (cont’d)
Path-Goal Theory: Leader Behavior Categories Path-goal clarifying behaviors Achievement-oriented behaviors Work facilitation behaviors Supportive behaviors Interaction facilitation behaviors Group decision behaviors Networking behaviors Value-based behaviors

27 Other Theories of Leadership
Transformational Leadership Theory Transformational leaders Are capable of charting new courses for their organization Are visionaries who challenge people to do exceptional things, above and beyond the plan Transactional leaders Monitor people so they do the expected, according to plan in order to maintain the status quo Get people to do things by offering a reward or threatening them with a punishment


29 Practical Intelligence (Sternberg)
The ability to solve everyday problems by utilizing knowledge gained from experience Changing oneself (adaptation) Changing the work environment (shaping) Finding a new work environment (selection) Skills acquired: Managing oneself Managing others Managing tasks

30 The Servant Leader (Greenleaf)
An ethical person who puts others—not herself or himself—in the foreground His/her first role is as a servant who: Inspires trust Masters feedback Emphasizes personal development Articulates goals Knows how to listen Relies on foresight

31 Mentoring Learning from a Mentor Mentoring’s Key Functions
Mentor: Someone who develops another person through tutoring, coaching, and guidance Mentoring’s Key Functions Serving as a career enhancement tool Providing psychological support


33 Behavior Modification
Behaviorism The belief that observable behavior is more important than inner states (needs, motives, or expectations) Favorable consequences encourage behavior, whereas unfavorable consequences discourage behavior. Operant Conditioning The study of how behavior is controlled by the surrounding environment

34 Behavior Modification (cont’d)
What Is Behavior Modification? The practical application of operant conditioning techniques to everyday behavior problems The systematic management of environmental factors to get people to do the right things more often and the wrong things less often Managing the antecedents and/or consequences of observable behavior

35 Managing Antecedents Antecedent: An environmental cue for a specific behavior to be exhibited Cue control: Controlling the presentation of cues to elicit the desired behaviors at specific places and times Managing antecedents is a way of encouraging good performance.


37 Managing Consequences
Positive reinforcement: Encouraging a behavior with a pleasing consequence Negative reinforcement: Encouraging a behavior by immediately withdrawing or terminating a displeasing consequence Extinction: Discouraging a behavior by ignoring it Punishment: Discouraging a behavior by the immediate presentation of an undesirable consequence or the withdrawal of something desirable

38 Behavior Modification (cont’d)
Positively Reinforce What Is Right About Job Performance Build up desirable job behaviors by reinforcing the desirable counterpart to an undesirable behavior. Focus on the positive aspects of job performance. Schedule Reinforcement Appropriately Continuous reinforcement: Rewarding every instance of a behavior Intermittent reinforcement: Rewarding some, but not all, instances of a behavior; the most effective form of reinforcement

39 Terms to Understand Influence Power Reward power Coercive power
Legitimate power Referent power Expert power Empowerment Leadership Formal leadership Informal leadership Emotional intelligence Transformational leader Mentor Behaviorism Behavior modification Antecedent Positive reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement

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