Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Fifteen Police Technology Tracking and Surveillance.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Fifteen Police Technology Tracking and Surveillance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Fifteen Police Technology Tracking and Surveillance

2 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Learning Objectives Understand the difference between passive surveillance and interactive surveillance Understand the difference between passive surveillance and interactive surveillance Explore techniques for tracking vehicles Explore techniques for tracking vehicles Explore using technology to hear or watch offenders Explore using technology to hear or watch offenders

3 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Surveillance Defined As sustained observations of an offender, a group of offenders, or a location. Passive – just watching Interactive – interacting with the offender

4 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Fourth Amendment Issues Anything someone does in public is open to surveillance without court order. Anything someone does in public is open to surveillance without court order. Anything that goes on that would be reasonably visible from the street is open to surveillance without a warrant (Plain Sight Doctrine) Anything that goes on that would be reasonably visible from the street is open to surveillance without a warrant (Plain Sight Doctrine)

5 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Tracking Vehicles Used in criminal investigations in three criminal investigationscriminal investigationsmanners: When the police install a tracking device on an offender’s vehicle. When the police install a tracking device on an offender’s vehicle.police When you have a tracking device on your personal vehicle and it is stolen. When you have a tracking device on your personal vehicle and it is stolen. When the police follow a vehicle in person When the police follow a vehicle in personpolice

6 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Consumer installed Automatic Vehicle Locator System is activated and reports to a central location. System is activated and reports to a central location. Vendor contacts police. Vendor contacts police. police Vendor supplies the location of the vehicle to the police. Vendor supplies the location of the vehicle to the police. police

7 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Two types of Consumer installed AVL: Locating technology is installed in a police vehicle. System is activated and police receive signal and search for the vehicle using technology installed in the police vehicle. Locating technology is installed in a police vehicle. System is activated and police receive signal and search for the vehicle using technology installed in the police vehicle. police

8 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Covert Tracking Installing a device ON the vehicle, usually on the undercarriage. Vehicle must be parked on a public street. Photograph provided by SpektraTek Law Enforcement Technologies

9 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Covert Tracking Installing a device IN the vehicle using requires a warrant because you are entering the vehicle Installing a device IN the vehicle using requires a warrant because you are entering the vehicle

10 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Tracking Electronic Communications Cellular transmissions can be tracked by having the cellular provider forward real- time information on the cell sites the device is using. Requires a court order. Screen Capture provided by Pen-Link™

11 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Photo Red Light Sensors, usually under the pavement, are coordinated with the traffic signal. Anyone entering the intersection after the red light is detected and photographed. Sensors, usually under the pavement, are coordinated with the traffic signal. Anyone entering the intersection after the red light is detected and photographed.

12 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Photo Red Light Photographic traffic enforcement systems (photo red light) use one of three types of film: Industrial quality 35mm film (most common) Industrial quality 35mm film (most common) Digital cameras (digital images) Digital cameras (digital images) Video cameras – allow for real-time transmission of images. Video cameras – allow for real-time transmission of images.

13 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster PolicePolice In-car Video Police Video recording devices offer visual documentation of an event. Limitations: Must be operating 24/7, in all weather, in all conditions - ruggedized Storage, record keeping, duration of tapes What to record, when, how long?

14 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Videotapes are analog. Videotapes are analog. DVD’s are digital. DVD’s are digital. Digital Video Cassettes (DVCs) can contain more information than analog videotapes and are smaller, but you still have lots of small tapes. Storage? Records? Digital Video Cassettes (DVCs) can contain more information than analog videotapes and are smaller, but you still have lots of small tapes. Storage? Records? PolicePolice In-car Video Police

15 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Closed-Circuit Television CCTV is noncommercial video recordings that are broadcast on a private network (e.g., convenience stores). Top 3 uses of CCTV: Investigative Evidence documentation Crime reduction

16 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Closed-Circuit Television Top 3 uses of CCTV: Investigative Investigative Evidence documentation Evidence documentation Crime reduction Crime reduction Photograph provided by SpektraTek Law Enforcement Technologies

17 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Uses of CCTV Photographic traffic enforcement Photographic traffic enforcement In-car camera systems (police cars or bait cars) In-car camera systems (police cars or bait cars)police Surveillance of public places Surveillance of public places Covert surveillance operations Covert surveillance operations

18 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Uses of CCTV Some CCTV system are portable, while others are hardwired into vehicles and locations. The choice of type of system affects capabilities and is usually dictated by budget and mission Photograph provided by Pyramid Vision Technologies Photograph provided by SpektraTek Law Enforcement Technologies

19 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Body Wires Audio devices that can be secreted on a person. Audio devices that can be secreted on a person. Used during interactive surveillance especially undercover capacity. No warrant or court order is required. Used during interactive surveillance especially undercover capacity. No warrant or court order is required. Consists of a transmitter, power source, and antenna. Consists of a transmitter, power source, and antenna.

20 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Night Vision Devices Night vision technology consists of two major types: Light amplification imaging (intensification) Light amplification imaging (intensification) Thermal imaging (infrared) Thermal imaging (infrared)

21 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Light amplification Takes small amount of light from surrounding area Takes small amount of light from surrounding area Converts protons into electrons Converts protons into electrons Directs electrons through disk channels Directs electrons through disk channels Electrons bounce around and release more energy Electrons bounce around and release more energy

22 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Thermal Imaging Imagers take infrared light (heat) and focus it on light detectors Detectors create a thermogram (pattern) Imager converts info to electrical data and creates an image. Photograph provided by ITT Industries

23 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Video Evidence There are other sources of video evidence besides CCTV at a crime location ATM machines ATM machines Gas stations Gas stations Post offices Post offices Parking Lots Parking Lots

24 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Find Military Books at Military BooksMilitary Bookswww.military-writers.com


Download ppt "Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Fifteen Police Technology Tracking and Surveillance."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google