Presentation on theme: "16’54” A Tour of the Music of the Twentieth-Century."— Presentation transcript:
16’54” A Tour of the Music of the Twentieth-Century
impressionism Claude Debussy Images, “Reflections on the Water” tonal sonorities… non-functional harmony… colorful texture…
expressionism Arnold Schoenberg Book of the Hanging Garden, “Angst und Hoffen” the dissolution of tonality… full of emotional expression… jagged melodic lines romanticism’s last gasps…
expressionism Anton Webern (a student of Schoenberg) Five Movements for String Quartet, Op. 5, No. 4 free atonality… spare gestures… new instrumental timbres…
an early American great Charles Ives Second Violin Sonata, Mvt. 3, “Revival” quotation… polymeter, changing meters… polytonality… quintal and whole-tone chords…
another atonal miniature Schoenberg Six Little Piano Pieces, Op. 19 Number 4
this one’s a riot (or caused one) Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring anti-romantic… abrupt contrasts… narrow melodies… evocation of the primitive…
an expressionist opera Alban Berg another student of Schoenberg Wozzeck “Marie’s Lullaby” (Act 1, Scene 3)
a new approach to composition Arnold Schoenberg Suite, Op. 25, Trio (of a minuet) based on a twelve-tone row: return to earlier forms (dance) E F G Db Gb Eb Ab D B C A Bb
…meanwhile… Edgard Varèse Hyperprism experiments in musical timbre… winds brass and a whole lot o’ percussion
…meanwhile… Henry Cowell The Banshee experiments in musical timbre can you guess the sound source?
…a return to the past… Igor Stravinsky Symphony of Psalms 1930s neo-classicism psalm text… ostinatos... pitch-centered, non-functional
a more tonal twelve-tone Alban Berg Violin Concerto What sonorities did the violin solo first outline?
a gen-u-ine sonata Paul Hindemith Piano Sonata No. 2, I more neo-classicism can you hear the sections of an exposition?
back to the baroque? Anton Webern Cantata No. 1, Op. 29, I text painting (thunder!) tone rows chosen to limit chord vocabulary
wartime Olivier Messiaen quartet for the end of time “dance of fury, by the seven trumpets” irregular, additive rhythms what’s the texture?
an American ballet Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring unabashed diatonicism… but non-functional…
on pins and needles: a trip to the hardware store John Cage Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared piano exploring new sounds… aleatoric composition process…
hyperserialism Pierre Boulez Structures 1a tone rows and rhythm rows
hyperserialism Milton Babbitt Semi-simple variations theme and Var. 1 exceedingly careful control of the presentation of 12 pitches…
take another chance John Cage Fontana Mix For electronic tape Composed through indeterminate processes Aria Written in colored graphic notation Singer chooses “style” for each colored gesture May be performed separately. Or together. Whatever.
cluster’s last stand? Krzysztof Penderecki Threnody (For the victims of Hiroshima) new sound resources… sound “masses” unusual string timbres constrained improvisation…
Miniminiminiminiminim-alism Terry Riley In C 53 measures, each repeated ad lib. any combo, number of instruments this performance 42 minutes This is excerpt 1 Here’s a second excerpt
phaseshifting haseshiftingp Steve Reich Piano Phase two performers begin in unison… one gradually pulls ahead… this “gradual process” continues until they rejoin new counterpoint results… [second excerpt]
an homage to an homage of the past Luciano Berio Sinfonia, III, In ruhig fliessender Bewegung a masterwork of quotation what music underlies the excerpt? what texts do you hear?
theatrical music George Crumb Apparitions
less minimilism John Adams Short Ride on a Fast Machine includes some of minimalism’s repetitive elements adds greater local melodic interest faster harmonic rhythm