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Kitchen-Made Cheeses And Creams © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Kitchen-Made Cheeses And Creams © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kitchen-Made Cheeses And Creams © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 15

2 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. A Brief History of Cheese Archeologists suggest that people began domesticating goats and sheep in the region of the Mediterranean somewhere between 6,000 and 10,000 years BC The Bible contains numerous references to cheese Toussaint-Samat documents the existence of cheese 20 centuries before Abraham The Iraq Museum in Baghdad has a Sumerian fresco of 2500 BC that depicts a peasant milking a cow

3 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. A Brief History of Cheese Dairymen of the Lake Constance Stone Age community developed a pottery colander for draining whey in about 2000 BC

4 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Early Varieties 7000 BC: Ancient Sumerian and Mesopotamian cultures of the Tigris-Euphrates basin raised cows and sheep and engaged in dairy production 3000 BC: First historical reference to cheese, found in a Sumerian frieze 800 BC: Homer mentions cheese in his Iliad 329 BC: Greek historian Xenophon wrote about a goat cheese that had already been made for centuries 54 BC: Julius Caesar invades Britain and finds the Britons making Cheshire cheese

5 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Early Varieties 50 AD: The Roman food writer, Columella, outlines the basic steps for cheese making 702 AD: Japan develops first written law codes and establishes regulations for making dairy products, including cheese 800 AD: Gorgonzola is first made in Italy AD: Roquefort cheese is discovered in France 1200 AD: Parmesan cheese and Pont l’Évèque are made

6 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Early Varieties 1400 AD: Ementhaler Swiss cheese is first produced in the canton of Bern’s Ementhal Valley 1680 AD: A French document refers to Camembert as “a very good cheese, well suited to aid digestion washed down with good wines” 1722 AD: Gruyère cheese is introduced in France AD: The London cheese shop Paxton & Whitfield opens, selling Cheddars, Gloucesters, Cheshires, Stiltons, and other English cheeses

7 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Early Varieties 1815 AD: The first factory for the mass production of Swiss cheese opens in Bern 1824 AD: Colby cheese developed in Vermont, USA 1851 AD: The first American cheese factory is established in Rome, New York 1865 AD: Marin French Cheese Company opens in Petaluma, California 1876 AD: McCadam Creamery opens in Heuvelton, New York (moved to Chateaugay, New York, in 1934)

8 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Value to Cheese Makers and Consumers Highly nutritious A means of preservation –Use of excessive production of milk Ease of storage Food for carriage –Very portable and a staple for those who worked in the fields

9 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cheese Today Categories of production recognized in France, Italy, Switzerland, and other cheese-producing countries –Fermier: cheese made in a farmhouse –Artisanal: an individual producer uses milk from animals raised on his farm –Cooperatives: cheese made in a single dairy from milk provided by members of the cooperatives –Industrial: milk is bought from a number of producers, sometimes from distant regions

10 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By ripening agent: –Unripened –Using mold as the agent, ripened from outside –Using mold as the agent, ripened from inside –Using bacteria as the agent, ripened from outside –Using bacteria as the agent, ripened from inside

11 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Soft fresh (unripened) soft cheeses, uncooked and unripened; generally have a fresh, mild, creamy flavor and texture Have a slight tinge of tartness, but not very acidic High moisture that will keep under refrigeration for only a few weeks Examples: Feta, cottage cheese, ricotta, cream cheese, Neufchâtel, Queso, Blanco

12 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Soft Ripened Soft, velvety surfaces, often referred to as the “blooming rind” Penicillium condidum is sprayed or dusted on the surface of the cheese, allowing it to ripen from the outside toward the center Ripen quickly; are at their peak for a few days Examples: Bel Paese, Brie, Camembert

13 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Blue Cheeses Blue-veined cheeses Prized for their pungent tastes and creamy textures Examples: Danish Blue, English Stilton, French Roquefort, Italian Gorgonzola, and American Maytag

14 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Pasta Filata String curd cheeses Made by pulling and stretching until they are firm. Examples: string cheese, mozzarella, provolone

15 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Firm Cheeses Firm, solid texture suitable for slicing Very mild, like Colby, to very sharp, such as aged Cheddar Examples: Monterey Jack, Swiss Ementhaler, Gruyère, Jarlsburg

16 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Hard Cheeses Very hard grating cheeses Dry, grainy texture, often sold already grated Examples: Parmesan, Pecorino Romano, Queso Enchilada, Mimolette, aged Asiago, Grana Padano, Parmigiano-Reggiano

17 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Cheese By texture and method of ripening: –Processed Cheeses Made in an artificial manner—by grinding one or more natural cheeses; then blending with flavorings, colors, and emulsifiers; then heated for pasteurization and hardened in molds

18 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Varied Uses of Kitchen-Made Cheeses and Creams Cooking ingredient Stuffing and binding agent Accompaniments Functional garniture Appetizers Sandwiches and rollups Soups As a course

19 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercially Made Cheeses Steps –Incoming milk is tested for purity and quality –The milk is weighed and heat-treated or pasteurized –A starter culture and/or enzymes are added to help curdle the milk –The rennet (a milk-clotting enzyme) is added to coagulate the milk and to form a gel-like mass –The coagulated mass is cut into small pieces to begin the separation of the curds (solids) from the whey (liquid)

20 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercially Made Cheeses Steps –The curds and whey are cooked and stirred until the desired temperature and firmness of curd is achieved –The whey is drained for further treatment and other uses –The curds are salted and manipulated according to their particular cheese variety –The curds are pressed into a cheese mold to form their characteristic shape; the curds knit and release any additional whey

21 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Commercially Made Cheeses Steps –For cheeses that are aged, they are stored in humidity and temperature-controlled rooms to allow full development of flavor and texture, known as ripening.

22 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kitchen-Made Cheeses Basic Equipment –Measuring cups and spoons –Dairy thermometer –Double-boiler pots –Stainless-steel slotted spoon –Curd knife (with stainless-steel blade) –Commercial cheesecloth –Butter muslin

23 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kitchen-Made Cheeses Basic Equipment –Cheese molds –Cheese press –Cheese boards –Cheese mats

24 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kitchen-Made Cheeses Care and Sanitation of Equipment –All equipment must be of a certain material: glass, stainless steel, copper, or enamel-lined vessels –Most failures are caused by unsanitary equipment –“Friendly bacteria” are used; introducing harmful bacteria will create an unwanted variable that could produce disastrous results

25 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kitchen-Made Cheeses Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment –The chef may choose one from a list of alternatives Immerse nonporous equipment and utensils, for 5 minutes, in boiling water Steam nonporous equipment and utensils for 5 minutes in a tightly covered container Boil or steam porous equipment, such as wood, cheese boards, and mats, for at least 20 minutes

26 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kitchen-Made Cheeses Cleaning and Sanitizing Equipment –The chef may choose one from a list of alternatives Plastic equipment, including food-grade materials, should not be boiled or steamed; these items should be sterilized with a solution of bleach and water (2 tablespoons bleach to 1 gallon water) Clean and sterilize all counters and work surfaces using a cleaning towel that has been rinsed in a bleach solution

27 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Ingredient Identification Cow’s Milk –87% water –Less than 3.7% butterfat Goat’s Milk –87% water –Nearly 3.8% butterfat –Has 13% less lactose than cow’s milk –Milk fat particles are small, making it superior to cow’s milk for digestibility

28 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Ingredient Identification Buttermilk –Cultured by the addition of bacteria Cream –Half-and-half: mixture of milk and cream containing 10.5% to 18% milk fat –Light cream contains between 18% to 30% milk fat –Light whipping cream contains between 30% to 36% milk fat –Heavy cream contains no less than 36% milk fat

29 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Ingredient Identification Yogurt –Culturing a mixture of milk and cream with lactic acid–producing bacteria, Lactobacillus Bularicus and Streptococcus thermophilus—sweeteners, flavorings and other ingredients may be added –Contains 3.25% milk fat, unless it is the low-fat variety

30 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Ingredient Identification Fresh Starters –Aid in the the coagulation of the milk –Aid in the flavor development of the cheese Types –Mesophilic: thrives at about room temperature and cannot survive at higher temperatures –Thermophilic: used when the curd is cooked to as high as 132ºF (55ºC)

31 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Ingredient Identification Rennet –Active ingredient in rennet is the enzyme chymosin, also known as rennin –Obtained from the stomach of newly born slaughtered calves –Vegetarian cheeses are made using rennet from either fungal or bacterial sources such as fig leaves, melon, and safflower

32 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Ingredient Identification Vinegar –Contains acetic acid that will coagulate milk Lemon Juice –Contains citric acid that can “denature” the proteins in the milk globules Tartaric Acid –Promotes graceful aging and crispness of flavor Salt –Adds flavor and inhibits growth of undesirable microbes

33 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Steps in Cheese Making Milk Preparation –Pasteurization Acidification and Coagulation –Lowering the pH (increasing acid content) of the milk to make it more acidic –After acidification coagulation begins—separating milk into curds and whey Methods –Acidifying the milk by bacterial action producing lactic acid –Coagulating the milk with rennet or a similar coagulant –Direct addition of an organic acid such as acetic, citric, lactic, or tartaric acid

34 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Steps in Cheese Making Cutting and Pressing the Curd –Curd is cut to release whey –Heating increases the rate at which the curd contracts and squeezes out the whey –Small curds are pressed to form large curds Whey Separation –Scooping and draining –Kneading or squeezing

35 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Steps in Cheese Making Finishing and Forming –Curd is cut into small pieces with a cheese harp, and salt is added –Some cheeses are immersed in a brine solution. –Salted-curd pieces are then put into forms or molds to allow remaining whey to escape –May be pressed to expel more whey –Cheese is then removed from molds and wrapped or waxed

36 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Steps in Cheese Making Ripening –Bacteria continues to grow to change chemical composition, resulting in flavor and texture change –Surface-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie have outside coatings treated with a different type of Penicillium spore, which creates a feathery white mold, referred to as “blooming” or “flowery” rind –Other surface-ripened cheeses have their surfaces smeared with a bacterial broth—these cheeses are called “washed” rind and must be washed regularly

37 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Basic Steps in Cheese Making Forming Rinds –Formed during the ripening process –Many are naturally formed –May be brushed, washed, oiled, treated with a covering of paraffin wax or simply left untouched –Function is to protect the interior of the cheese to allow it to ripen harmoniously

38 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Adding Flavoring Agents Most common method is to blend the flavoring agent with the freshly cut curd Salt is added after the curd is cut Other ingredients are added when salt is added

39 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Adding Coatings Can be coated with fresh herbs, chopped nuts, cracked peppercorns, seeds, or spices, or merely wrapped in a shroud of pickled grape leaves

40 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Caring for Cheese Methods: –It holds well when wrapped in waxed paper, butcher’s paper, dampened cheesecloth, or aluminum foil; young cheeses, as well as goat’s cheese, favor being stored in tightly covered plastic containers –The use of refrigerators is better than storing at room temperature; however, a cold, damp fruit cellar is preferred –Light is damaging to cheese, and too much will cause it to oxidize rapidly and spoil

41 © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Serving Cheese Tasting progressions: –Milder to stronger –Lighter to heavier –Younger to older –Simpler to more complex –Local to regional


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