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December 16, 2010 What caused the division in the civil rights movement? What problems were faced by African Americans living in the North? –Presentations.

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Presentation on theme: "December 16, 2010 What caused the division in the civil rights movement? What problems were faced by African Americans living in the North? –Presentations."— Presentation transcript:

1 December 16, 2010 What caused the division in the civil rights movement? What problems were faced by African Americans living in the North? –Presentations of Section 3 –Notes from Section 3 –Study Guide handed out –Description of Review for Tomorrow Homework: Group Work

2 Civil Rights 1960’s Common Factors: Calls for pride in black identity Commitment to change the social/economic structures that kept people in poverty Uncommon Factors: Movement turns attention to North in 1965 New Leadership=New Methods

3 Northern Segregation: De Facto Segregation Exists by practice and custom Harder to fight Difficult to convince whites to share economic and social power De Jure Segregation Segregation by law Can be appealed by laws

4 De Facto Segregation Intensified after WWII as A.A. migrated to Norhtern cities “white flight” – whites moved into suburbs Most A.A. left in urban slums –landlords did obey city health codes –Schools deteriorated with neighborhoods –Unemployment rates 2x as high

5 Anger is Building Brutal treatment from mostly white cops 1966 – King campaigned in Chicago to end de facto segregation and make the city an “open city”

6 When King led the demonstration through white Chicago neighborhood, they through rocks and bottles After a second instance, King left without accomplishing his goal.

7 Violence Erupts in New York in 1964 An encounter between white police and A.A. teenagers causes death of 15 year old student Race riot of Central Harlem is sparked

8 Violence Erupts in Los Angeles 34 killed and hundreds of dollars of property destroyed Watts neighborhood Riot one of the worst in our nation’s history

9 Urban Violence Erupts A.A. rage baffled many whites due to victories in the South Some realized A.A. needed economic equality (housing, jobs, education) Johnson set up relief for poverty but those funds redirected to Vietnam Conflict

10 Malcolm X urged followers to take control of communities, livelihoods, & culture Born Malcom Little Father killed by white racists Mother had emotional collapse He and his siblings under care of the state Quit school and jailed for criminal behavior

11 Malcolm X & African-American Solidarity Joined Nation of Islam (Black Muslims) and developed philosophy of black superiority and separatism from whites Advocated armed self-defense which frightened most whites and many A.A. Resented by other members of Nation of Islam Urged A.A. to work with world organizations and white progressives to obtain equality Silenced by a gunman

12 Ballots or Bullets March 1964 – Malcolm X left Elijah Muhammed over differences in strategy and formed another Muslim organization Embarked on piligrimage to Mecca He learned that orothodox Islam preached racial equality and he worshipped with other nationalities His attitude towards whites changed dramatically –“if you don’t use the ballot, then forced to use bullet” February 21, 1965 – he was killed while giving a speech in Harlem

13 Black Power June 1966 – tensions building between SNCC & others Jame Meredith set out for “walk against fear” where he was shot SCLC, CORE, & Stokely Carmicheal of SNCC decided finish Meredith’s walk SNCC & CORE were more militant as they shouted slogans similar to those of Malcom X –“we shall overcome” became “we shall overrun”

14 Police arrested him for tent on grounds of all- black high school showed up beaten at the rally, the crowd was electrified Black Power: was a “call for black people to begin to define their goals…and to lead their own organizations” King asked it be stopped Carmichael refused and said that SNCC should deny white members in A.A. pride movement

15 Black Panthers Oakland, CA in October 1966 –Founded by Huey Newton & Bobby Seale –Wanted to fight police brutality in the ghetto –Advocated self- sufficiency for A.A. communities as well as employment and decent housing

16 Black Panthers Continued A.A. should be exempt from draft in Vietnam Dressed in black leather jackets, black berets, and sunglasses Preached self-defense and sold copies of Mao Zedong’s writings Investigated thoroughly and found most activities were legal Daycares Breakfast programs Medical clinics Homeless assisstance

17 1968 – The Turning Point King Objected to Black Power movement Preaching violence could only end in grief Planning to lead Poor People’s March on Washington D.C.

18 King’s Death April 3, 1968 – addressed a crowd in Memphis Next day he stood on his hotel balcony and was shot James Earl Ray was his assassin

19 Reaction to King’s Death Robert Kennedy campaigning for presidency as King was assassinated Scheduled to appear in A.A. neighborhood, advisors say don’t go He goes anyway pleaing to stop the violence

20 King’s Death led to Riots Over 100 cities in flames –Baltimore –Chicago –Kansas City –Washington, D.C.

21 Another Kennedy Assassination Robert Kennedy assassinated in June 1968 by Jordanian immigrant who was angry over Kennedy’s support of Israel

22 Legacy of Civil Rights Kerner Commission – Johnson appointed to study causes of urban violence –Main cause = white racism –Solution = create more jobs, construct new housing, end de facto segregation Johnson ignored many recommendations

23 Civil Rights Gains Ended de jure segregation by bringing legal protection Civil Rights Act of 1968 – ended discrimination in housing A.A. had greater pride in racial identity and proudly displayed heritage –Appeared more frequently in movies/TV More voting = more representation More A.A. holding public offices Many activitists went on to be political leaders –Reverand Jesse Jackson –Vernon Jordan –Andrew Young

24 Unfinished Work Riots and confrontational groups led whites to fear and not support further changes White flight led to reversed progress in integration of urban schools Lack of jobs remained

25 Affirmative Action Making special efforts to hire or enroll groups who have suffered discrimination Programs adopted by many colleges and government jobs By 1970’s seen as “reverse discrimination” 1980’s some of the requirements were eased


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