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The Civil Rights Movement May 1, 2009. Civil War (1861-1865)  Was not fought to free the slaves  Made no plans to incorporate blacks into society.

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Presentation on theme: "The Civil Rights Movement May 1, 2009. Civil War (1861-1865)  Was not fought to free the slaves  Made no plans to incorporate blacks into society."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Civil Rights Movement May 1, 2009

2 Civil War ( )  Was not fought to free the slaves  Made no plans to incorporate blacks into society

3 Reconstruction ( )  Federal troops occupied the South  Civil War Amendments were passed 13 th freed the slaves 14 th made blacks citizens & extended the due process clause to the states 15 th gave black males the right to vote  KKK – Ku Klux Klan Kuklos

4 End of Reconstruction until Civil Rights Movement (1877 – 1954)  Dispute over the election of 1876 ended in a compromise – Hayes would win the presidency if he agreed to end Reconstruction  Federal troops withdrew (1877)  Civil War amendments were virtually ignored afterward

5 End of Reconstruction until Civil Rights Movement (1877 – 1954)  KKK disbanded  Sharecropping – became new slavery rent for land was paid with crops kept blacks poor, and in-debt tied blacks to the land and landowners  The following is a contract from North Carolina, 1882:

6 Sharecropper’s Contract To everyone applying to rent land upon shares, the following conditions must be read, and agreed to… The sale of every cropper’s part of the cotton to be made by me when and where I choose to sell, and after deducting all they owe me and all sums that I may be responsible for on their accounts, to pay them their half of the net proceeds

7 Literacy Tests  Given to blacks and later immigrants to prevent them from voting  Law that required literacy tests had a ‘grandfather clause’ If your grandfather voted, you didn’t have to take the test

8 End of Reconstruction until Civil Rights Movement (1877 – 1954)  Jim Crow laws de jure segregation Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  Separate but equal is legal  de facto segregation

9 End of Reconstruction until Civil Rights Movement (1877 – 1954) WWorld War I Great Trek North – last hired, 1st fired KKK returned DDepression high unemployment social problems rose lynching was a regular occurrence

10 End of Reconstruction until Civil Rights Movement (1877 – 1954)  World War II. Armed services segregated Many African-Americans served with distinction Many African-Americans gained a world view and less patience with segregation

11 Civil Rights Movement  Non-Violent  modeled after non-violent protests of Thoreau and Ghandi  resistance that was peaceful but not always lawful  depended on media coverage and public support  often resulted in violence against the movement

12 Emmitt Till

13 Brown v. Board of Education (1954)  started as several cases involving segregation in public schools  consolidated as one case, and Linda Brown was 1st plaintiff alphabetically  argued by Thurgood Marshall in front of the Supreme Court  decision unanimous that separate was not equal and schools must be desegregated  applied to all aspects of segregation

14 Montgomery Bus Strike  Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus (Dec. 1, 1955)  Led by MLK, blacks boycotted the buses for 13 months  Nov the Supreme Court struck down Alabama’s segregation laws  The bus company was nearly bankrupt before they complied in 1957.

15 Little Rock 9 (Sept. 1957)  9 black students were to start school in all white Central High  white students and parents protested  Governor Orval Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to prevent the students from entering the school  President Eisenhower ordered 1000 federal troops to Little Rock to restore order and escort the students to school  In , Governor Faubus tried to close the school and send the white students to private schools. He was prevented by court order and eventually the schools were desegregated.  Of the “Little Rock 9”, 1 was expelled, the others graduated

16 Freedom Riders  C.O.R.E. organized bus rides in 1961  States were ignoring recent court rulings that demanded all interstate bussing be integrated  One bus was fire-bombed in Anistan, Alabama  People were hauled off the bus and beaten in Montgomery, Al  In spite of that, continued rides until Jackson, Miss, where they were all arrested

17 1962  James Meredith is enrolled as the first black at the University of Mississippi.  Two killed, many injured in riots  Federal troops sent in to help him register

18 March on Washington  1963  250,000 people  “I Have a Dream”  Helped bring about the Civil Rights Act of 1964 *delayed in 1963 due to Kennedy’s assasination

19 Civil Rights Act of 1964 is signed by President Johnson ************************** Outlaws separate standards for blacks & whites for voting Withholds federal funds for discrimination of facilities Outlaws discrimination in public facilities

20 Freedom Summer  1964  Northerner college students went south to help AA to register to vote  Many beaten and scared away  3 disappeared between Meridian & Philadelphia, Miss  Bodies found in earthen dam several weeks later

21 Freedom Summer  Local police refuse to investigate or prosecute offenders  Later proven that police were directly involved in the killings  Initially only charges were federal, for Civil Rights violations (7 convicted; max. time served was 6 years)

22 Freedom Summer  Edgar Ray Killen 1967 jury deadlocked on Civil Rights charges 2005 tried in MI on murder and manslaughter charges Convicted of manslaughter at age 80 Given bail while appealing; bail revoked after his family threatened the judge Feb. 25, 2010, filed suit against FBI for violating his Civil Rights

23 March, 1965 March From Selma to Montgomery  Jimmy Lee Jackson killed by police ‘deputies’ in peaceful meeting at a local church  MLK called for march from Selma to Montgomery (Capital of Alabama) in protest  600 peaceful demonstrators beaten, whipped & bitten by police dogs All on TV

24 March, 1965 March From Selma to Montgomery  President Johnson called for an immediate passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965  March continued 10 days later with 25,000 people protected by press and US Marshals

25 Voting Rights Act of 1965 is signed by President Johnson ************************** Among other things, outlaws literacy tests and has provisions for enforcement

26 End of “Civil Rights Movement”  Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.  Non-violent approach is replaced by more violent separatists movements  Urban riots become common & deadly  Bussing becomes the issue in early 1970’s

27  Affirmative Action – outlaws quotas but race & ethnicity can be a factor  1992 – Race riots in LA 1 st in years, motivated by Rodney King beating  “Hate Laws” increase the penalties if racially motivated

28 The End!


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