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Primm-2015 The Cold War and the 1950s. Origins of the Cold War.

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1 Primm-2015 The Cold War and the 1950s

2 Origins of the Cold War

3 Post-WWII American Concerns American leaders focused on economic problems believing that the Great Depression had caused WWII. By 1945, Roosevelt and his advisors were convinced that Economic growth would lead to world peace. They wanted to promote democracy and free enterprise.

4 Post-WWII Soviet Concerns After the war, Soviet leaders became concerned about security. Germany had invaded Russia twice in less than a 30 years. The Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak and make sure that countries between Germany and the Soviet Union were under Soviet control. Believed that Communism was a superior economic system and would eventually replace capitalism.

5 Yalta Conference February 1945: Stalin joined FDR and Churchill in their call for a meeting in April to draft UN charter Discussed postwar reorganization of land  German Occupation  Divided into four zones  Russia to get control of eastern half of Germany and Berlin  U.S., Britain, and France to get control of western half of Germany and Berlin  Arguments about German reparations increased tensions between the United States and the USSR Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to Soviet annexation of large sections of eastern Poland  Debate concerning two governmental claims to govern Poland,, one Communist and one non- Communist  Demanded free elections be held in Poland itself  Compromised reached setting up a blended government  Elections were never held  Stalin could not see why Americans and British were upset, especially as Americans dominated many Latin American nations and supported unpopular regimes there

6 Declaration of Liberated Europe America placed restrictions against Communist nations following the war The Declaration ensured all European nations could democratically elect their post- war governments Allies promised: People of Europe could create democratic institutions To create temporary governments that represented democracy The earliest establishment through free elections of governments responsible to the will of the people 6

7 Creation of United Nations Roosevelt believed a new international peace organization would prevent another world war Created the UN General Assembly where every member country in the world would have one vote Security Council would consist of 11 member countries – goal is to maintain international peace and security  Britain, France, China, Soviet Union, and United States have permanent spots, the other 6 rotate every 2 years April 1945 representatives created the UN Charter

8 Potsdam Conference July 1945: Truman, Stalin, Churchill  Agreed to try Nazi leaders as war criminals  Confirmed the division of the country into four zones to be occupied separately by American, Soviet, British, and French troops ▪ Berlin, deep in Soviet zone, was also divided  Stalin rejected all arguments that he loosen his grip on Eastern Europe ▪ Truman, who had received news of successful atomic test, refused to make any concessions – wanted to ‘get tough’ with the Russians because he no longer needed their help against Japan ▪ Russia’s eastern zone was primarily an agricultural region. ▪ Desired industrial reparations from the western zone. ▪ Stalin believed Truman aimed to keep Russia week, increasing tensions

9 Stalin’s Iron Curtain Speech Marked the beginning of the Cold War, separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West Despite the Declaration of Liberated Europe, the Soviet army in Eastern Europe ensured that eventually, pro- Soviet Communists governments would be established in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia Satellite Nations: Eastern European nations such as Poland and Romania that practiced Communism but were not fully controlled by the Soviet Union Required to remain Communist, be friendly towards the USSR, and followed Soviet approved policies 9

10 The Cold War ( ) An era of confrontation and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union Rival nations competing to influence their political and economical ideologies upon weaker and unstable nations

11 Early Cold War

12 Containing Communism Containment Policy Long Telegram Truman’s Containment Policy Crisis in Iran Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan The Berlin Crisis West Germany founded Berlin Airlift NATO

13 Long Telegram United States was exasperated by Soviet’s refusal to cooperate after the Potsdam Conference February 22, 1946-Upon request by the Department of State, Moscow’s U.S. Diplomat, George Kennan, sent what came to be know as the Long Telegram, explaining his views of the Soviet goals Communism feared capitalism, was economically weak, and needed to spread to survive American policy reflected Russia’s belief that they were in a long-term historical struggle against capitalism and pushed for “a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies’

14 Truman’s Containment Policy American willingness to help struggling European countries Theory that if the United States could keep the Soviets from expanding their power, it was only a matter of time until the Soviet system would fall apart Communism could therefore be beaten without going to war Achieved through diplomatic, economic, and military actions 14

15 Crisis in Iran March 1946, following the conclusion of WWII Soviet troops refused to evacuated occupied Northern Iran in order to secure a supply line from the Persian Gulf. Demanded access to oil supplies and helped local Communists to establish a separate government Soviet forces withdrew due to U.S. demand and military pressure 15

16 Truman Doctrine August 1946, Stalin demanded joint control of the Dardanelles with Turkey Helped Greece and Turkey and was an attempt to halt Soviet aggression Sent 400 million dollars in aide to European nations to help stop the spread of Communism Provided assistance and support free people of the world against subjugation and totalitarian regimes

17 Marshall Plan Postwar Western Europe faced problems, politically and economically Terrible winter in 1946 made things worse June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed the European recovery plan Established to combat poverty and hunger in Eastern Europe to support the use of foreign aid as a means to fight the spread of Communism Set billions of dollars worth of supplies, machinery, and food into Western Europe ending the appeal of Communism and opening new markets for trade Soviets reacted by developing their own economic program

18 Berlin Airlift Truman believed that Western’s Europe’s prosperity depended on Germany’s recovery 1948, the United States, Great Britain, and France merged their zones allowing Germans to have their own government Also agreed to merge West Berlin and make it part of the new German Republic known as the Republic of Germany June 1948, as a result of the merger, Stalin believed it would never receive reparations from Germany In retaliation Soviet troops set up a blockade, cutting off all and road and rail traffic to West Berlin Deemed a crisis. If Berlin fell, Western Germany would be next. Berlin Airlift-transported needed supplies (food, medicine, and coal) from West Germany through East Germany to West Berlin

19 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Prompted by the Berlin Blockade Created in 1949 as a mutual-defense alliance with Western Europe Initially included 12 democratic nations, the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, and Iceland First commitment to mutual defense alliance by the United States 6 years later allowed Germany to rearm and join

20 Warsaw Pact Response to the formation of NATO Defensive alliance for nations who shared a political and economical ideology with other communist nations

21 The Cold War Spreads to Asia

22 1949, Heightened Concerns about Communism Communist Revolution in China Soviet Union successfully detonates an atomic bomb North Korean army invades South Korea

23 Civil War and Revolution in China 1920s – Mao Zedong leads communist forces  Against Chiang Kai Shek – leader of China’s Nationalist government During WWII – set aside civil war to resist Japanese occupation End of WWII – civil war continues  Mao makes great gains but still doesn’t succeed REVIEW: #41 Review #41

24 Civil War and Revolution in China Mid-1940s – US sends $2 billion in aid to Nationalists  Money was wasted because of poor military planning and corruption By 1949 – US discontinued aid to Chinese Nationalists October 1949 – Communists win- establish the People’s Republic of China  Nationalist leaders flee to Taiwan

25 After The Fall of China America shocked by China’s fall to communism September 1949  Soviets announce successful atomic bomb test  Soviets enter Nuclear Arms Race Early 1950s  People’s Republic of China & Soviet Union sign treaty Friendship and Alliance Western leaders fear that China and Soviet Union support communist revolutions in other nations US kept formal relations with Nationalists  US used veto powers to keep New Communist China out of UN

26 After Fall of China Chinese revolution brought significant change in American policy toward Japan at end of WWII  Douglas MacArthur took charge of Japan  introduce democracy After loss of China  moved towards rapid recovery of Japan’s industrial economy Japan = key to defend Asia West Germany = key to defend Europe Review: #36

27 Beginning of Korean War End of WWII  US and USSR forces enter Korea to disarm Japanese troops Allies divide Korea at the 38 th parallel of latitude Review # 20-22

28 Beginning of the Korean War Problems  Both governments claimed authority  Border clashes were common  Soviets gave North Koreans military aid  quickly built large, well equipped army June 20, 1950 = North Korean troops invade south Review # 20-22

29 UN Intervenes Truman  saw North Korean invasion as test of containment policy  Ordered US naval and air power into action  Truman called UN to act  Call was successful because Soviet delegates were boycotting the security council over policy on China  not present to veto American proposal  US troops and South Korean troops able to resist Korean onslaught at Pusan Perimeter = bought time for MacArthur Review # 20-22

30 Attacks on North Korea September 15, 1950  MacArthur ordered an invasion behind enemy lines of Inchon = took North Koreans by surprise Within weeks  North Koreans full retreat across 38 th Truman ordered to pursue beyond 38 th MacArthur pushes North Koreans to Yalu River Review # , 36

31 China Enters the War Communist Chinese feared advancing UN troops  Warned forces to halt = was ignored November 1950 – China launches massive attack across Yalu River  100,000 Chinese troops flooded  drove UN forces back Review # 20-22

32 Truman Fires MacArthur Truman faced criticism from MacArthur when he refused to give into his demands to expand the war with China or use the atomic bomb Truman wanted to show that president was in charge April 1951 – MacArthur was fired by President Truman for insubordination MacArthur remained popular – returned a hero

33 Changes in Truman’s Policy Matthew Ridgway replaces MacArthur By mid-1951  UN forces push Chinese and North Korean forces back across 38 th parallel War settled down – still small battles November 1951 – peace negotiations began, but war did not end until July 1953 Armistice -mutual ceasefire of belligerent nations Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel Beginning of Korean War marked important turning point in the Cold War Before Korean WarAfter Korean War 1.US preferred political pressure 2.US focused on Europe in containing communism 1.Cold War expanded in Asia 2.US became militarily involved in Asia

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35 Significance of the Korean War Important turning point in the Cold War Until 1950s, the United States had preferred to use political pressure and economic aid to contain Communism American now embarked on a military roundup and expanded its influence into Asia Defense agreements were signed with Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Australia 35

36 Domino Theory President Eisenhower suggested that the fall of French Indochina might create a “domino” effect. According to this Domino theory, if South Vietnam fell to Communism, neighboring Southeast Asian countries who also fall to Communism like a row of dominos. After taking Vietnam Cambodia, and Laos, Communists would threaten Thailand to the west and the Strait of Malacca to the South. Resisting the Communists in Vietnam might prevent this collapse. U.S. justification for stopping the spread of communism in South East Asia Review #18

37 Intro to First Indochina War French Occupation – Early 17 th century French colonization  Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos = French Indochina Early 1990s  Nationalism became a powerful force in Vietnam  Several political parties formed to push for independence or reform the French colonial government Ho Chi Minh  One of the nationalist leaders  At 21  sailed for Europe  Visited Soviet Union  found communism REVIEW: #38, 23

38 Intro to First Indochina War 1930  Returned to SE Asia and founded the Indochinese Communist party = worked to overthrow French  Became a wanted man  fled and spent years exiled in Soviet Union and China 1941  Returned to Japanese occupied Vietnam  Ho Chi Minh organized nationalist group called the Vietminh  Group united communists and non- communists to fight Japanese  US began sending military aid to Vietminh REVIEW: #25

39 Intro to First Indochina War cont. August 1945  Japanese surrendered control of Indochina  Ho Chi Minh announced that Vietnam was an independent nation  Created a Declaration of Independence = similar to American Declaration of Independence  French refused to see Vietnam become independent  wanted to regain colonial empire in SE Asia 1946  French troops returned to Vietnam and pushed Vietminh forces into hiding in countryside 1949  French officials set up new government in Vietnam  Vietminh fought back  Fighting escalated = France asked US for aid

40 US Perceptions of Vietnam French Occupation The United States supported French re- colonization of Vietnam post WWII because the US believed France was better suited to practice containment in S.E. Asia 40

41 Intro to First Indochinese War Truman administration  United States was in difficult position  Was opposed of colonialism  Also opposed of Vietnam’s independence movement due to ties with communist movement  2 events convinced Truman to help France  Fall of China to communism  Outbreak of Korean War REVIEW: #26

42 Divided American State Department European Experts in American Government Support Backing France Asia Experts in American Government Support Backing Ho Chi Minh Feel he is Nationalist or “Asian Tito”

43 US Backs France Truman Administration, Followed by Eisenhower Back the French Korean War Loss of China Idea of Monolithic Communism Cold War Strong France Helps Stop Communism in Western Europe Containment Ho Chi Minh and Viet Minh were more Communist than Nationalist

44 First Indo-China War France vs. Vietminh French try to keep Vietnam, Vietminh Fight for Independence 70% of French costs are paid by US

45 Dien Bien Phu 1954 Final Defeat of the French by the Vietminh French Surrender and Lose Indochina=Vietnam was no longer a French colony

46 1954 Geneva Conference End Hostilities Between French and Vietnamese Temporarily Divided Vietnam at 17th Parallel until French Leave. Elections to be held in 1956

47 Realities of Geneva Conference Dominated by Soviets and Chinese America does not directly participate or Recognize results.= US won’t negotiate with Communist China. Americans know Ho Chi Minh and Communists will easily win unification election

48 If Vietnam Goes Communist... Failure of Containment Domino Theory Fear of Monolithic Communist Alliance of China, Vietnam, and USSR

49 South Vietnam Instead of Support Geneva Agreement and Allowing Unification Elections and Communist Victory the United States stepped in to support the creation and protection of a pro-western government in South Vietnam American War in Vietnam is fought to keep South Vietnam Non- Communist

50 Causes and Effects of the Cold War Soviet Union controls Eastern Europe after WWII Chinese Communists win control of China US and Soviet Union explode atomic bomb Marshall Plan provides aid to Western Europe Western nations form NATO; Communist nations form Warsaw Pact Korean War erupts American and Soviet arms race begins Red Scare leads to hunt for Communists in US CAUSES EFFECTS

51 The Cold War and American Society

52 The Red Scare September 1945 – Igor Gouzenko defected outside of Soviet Embassy in Ottawa, Canada  Defected – abandon one’s country or cause in favor on an opposing one  Revealed several efforts made by Soviet Union to infiltrate gov’t organizations in US and Canada = this meant that spies have infiltrated American government The search for spies escalated into fear of Communist subversion  Subversion – effort to secretly weaken a society and overthrow its government American fear of spies intensified Cold War Review #: 34

53 Loyalty Review Program Established early 1947, screened all federal employees Confirmed fears that Communists had infiltrated the gov’t and increased fear 6 million screened, 14,000 subject to intense scrutiny, 2,000 quit, and 212 fired for “questionable loyalty” Review #: 4

54 HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee HAUC – House Un-American Activities Committee  Created in 1938 to investigate communist and fascist activities in US  1947 – FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover wanted to hold public hearings on Communist subversion  Targeted Communists and Communist sympathizers

55 Alger Hiss Alger Hiss-A member of the U.S. State Department, convicted of perjury (lying under oath) about his affiliation with the Communist party Whittaker Chambers accused State Dept. employee Alger Hiss of spying. Hiss claimed not to be part of the Communist Party Representative Richard Nixon pressed the case. Chambers produced “pumpkin papers” (secret documents along with microfilm) to defend himself

56 The Hollywood Ten Hollywood studios produced film which sympathizes with communism “Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the Communist Party?” A blacklist was created and producers agreed not to hire anyone in the film industry who was believed to be a Communist or refused to cooperate with the committee Ten screenwriters, known as the “Hollywood Ten”, used their 5 th Amendment right to protect themselves from self-incrimination ands refused to testify before HUAC

57 The Rosenberg’s Soviet’s success with atomic bomb raised suspicion  Americans believed that the Soviet’s ability to produce it so quickly was unlikely without help  Belief that spies aided in selling secrets of atomic bomb to Soviets 1950 – Man hunt led to successful information Julius and Ethel Rosenberg  NY couple charged with passing government secrets to the Soviet Union Rosenberg’s denied charges, were condemned to death for espionage Espionage- the practice of spying or of using spies, typically by gov’ts to obtain political and military information June 1953 – couple was executed

58 The Rosenberg’s Effects of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg being charged with atomic secrets to the Soviet Union  Mass hysteria that containment was not working and the U.S. was losing the Cold War  Panic among Americans fearing anyone could be a Communist spy  HUAC accusations of suspected communist and McCarthy hearings Review #: 34, 35

59 Project Venona Venona Papers -responsible for incriminating the Rosenbergs and other spies in the U.S. 1946, project to crack Soviet spy code Cracked about 3,000 messages between Moscow and US during Cold War  Messages confirmed Soviet spying  Led to federal investigators on massive hunt US chose not to make intercepted messages public to keep Soviets out of loop Revealed in Review #: 13

60 Communist trying to take over the world Has infiltrated:  Churches  Schools  Work place  Your neighbors They want to turn:  Your Friends  Your Children  Your Family  and YOU….COMMUNIST Communist secretly working to destroy America:  Teachers  Government Agents  Writers  Journalist  Liberals  Entertainers The Red Scare Spreads

61 Joseph McCarthy Wisconsin Senator  Claimed to know of dozens of gov’t officials that were communist.  Held hearings to question possible communists in the US Senate

62 McCarthyism 1952  became chairman of Senate subcommittee on investigations  Used power to force officials to testify alleged Communist influences  Investigations turned into witch hunt  a search for disloyalty based on flimsy evidence and irrational fear His tactics of damaging reputations with vague and unfound charges became known as McCarthyism Review #: 7, 34, 40

63 Downfall of McCarthy People were afraid to challenge McCarthy  Would make large accusations that drew press  Badger and question witnesses, refusing to accept their answer leaving suspicion and therefore supposed guilt 1954  Created a media frenzy that began his witch-hunts by saying that there were spies in the United States Army  Army did own internal investigation  found no spies or suspicion of espionage  McCarthy was furious  took his own investigation onto television  Army- McArthy hearings  Harshly questioned officers and harassed them  Popular support began to fade when millions watched him bully witnesses in televised hearings investigating the Army  “Have you no sense of decency?” Later  Senate passed a vote of censure = formal disapproval against McCarthy Review #: 7, 34, 40

64 Facing the Bomb Fear of Communism and of nuclear war dominated ordinary American life Americans were shocked by the first Soviet atomic test in 1949 Fear increased in 1952 when USSR successfully tested more powerful bomb  hydrogen bomb (achieved in less than a year after the Americans) Americans prepared for surprise Soviet attack  Schools set aside special bomb sheltered areas  School would participate in bomb drills  “Duck and cover” actions taken for protection against nuclear blast  Duck under desks, turn away from windows, and cover heads with hands Review #: 1, 33c, 34

65 Facing the Bomb Fallout- radiation left over after the blast  Experts stated that for every person killed outright by a nuclear blast, four more would die later from fallout Fallout shelter  Underground buildings stocked with food and water

66 Space and Arms Race

67 Competition between nations for superiority in the development and accumulation of weapons. Not limited to USA & USSR Arms Race

68 Nuclear Deterrence  Theory that an enemy will not use nuclear weapons as long as he can be destroyed as a consequence. Arms Race

69 1949  USSR develops A-Bomb  U.S. no longer lone Superpower Mid 1950s  Both sides have H-Bombs  Americans were shocked when the Soviets surpassed U.S. technology by testing the world’s first hydrogen bomb in s  enough warheads to destroy one another  Massive Fallout, “Nuclear Winter” Cold War Nuclear Arms Race

70 “More Bang for the Buck” Eisenhower’s “New Look” in defense policy  Convinced that the key to victory was not simply military might but also a strong economy  must show the world that free enterprise could produce a better and more prosperous society  Rather than maintaining a large expensive military, nuclear weapons provided “more bang for your buck”  threaten to use nuclear weapons aka massive retaliation  Cut military spending from $50  $34 billion, Increased bombs from 1,000  18,000 ( )  New technology such as the B-52 bomber (1955) and the ICBM

71 Sputnik Crisis Space Race started as a means to launch Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) Oct 4, 1957-Soviets launch Sputnik- 1 st satellite to orbit earth Americans afraid U.S had fallen behind Soviets US tried to catch up to Soviets  January 31, 1958 – US Launches first Satellite from Cape Canaveral (Explorer 1)

72 Reactions to Sputnik:  President John F. Kennedy set the goals of landing on the moon  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) created  Created by congress  Research rocket science & space exploration  National Defense Education Act (NDEA) passed  Provided funds for education and training in science, math, and foreign languages Space Race

73 Brinkmanship Brinkmanship-  the willingness to go to the brink of war to make the other side back down Conflicts in Asia:  Korean war ends “under circumstances of their own choosing”  China threatened to seize Taiwan  US threatened w/ nuclear weapon  China backed down

74 Fighting Communism Covertly To prevent Communist uprisings in other countries used covert, or hidden, operations conducted by the Central Intelligence Agency  Took place in developing nations with primarily agricultural economies many of which blamed European Imperialism and American Capitalism for their problems  Used covert operations to overthrow anti-American leaders and replace them the pro-American leaders  Iran and Guatemala

75 Crisis Middle East Iran 1953  Great Britain stealing Iran oil  Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh nationalized Anglo- Iranian Oil Company  USA claims Iran going Communist  US and GB overthrow Iran gov’t  bring back pro-American Shah of Iran  Puppet regime in mid-east  Containment but really oil Suez Crisis 1956  Prevent communism in the middle east  Dulles (SoS) offer to help finance the construction of a dam on the Nile River  Revoked after Egypt bought weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia  GB, France & Israel want control of Suez Canal  USSR sides with Egypt  USA stops GB, France & Israel  Diplomatic victory on behalf of the Soviets who offered aid to Egypt  Other Arab nations began to accept Soviet aid

76 Nikita Khrushchev 1953 Stalin Dies Power Struggle ensues 1956 Khrushchev emerges as leader of USSR Secretly defied Stalin’s policy  later exposed by the CIA Defiance caused E. European countries to rebel=uprising in Hungary Used military force. Your grandchildren will live under COMMUNISM!

77 Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you De-Stalinization Program

78 U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace

79 “Balance of Terror” Main idea: Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)  Neither side can get advantage, both have to fear destruction  Cities purposely targeted, held hostage to Nuclear Terror  Retaliatory capability ensures that neither U.S. nor USSR will attack  Enough weapons survive first strike to retaliate with second strike Must have variety of delivery systems so enough survive a first strike  “Triad” of Missiles, Bombers and Submarines Must have protected (and automated) Command Systems to ensure second strike happens  Strategic Command (STRATCOM) HQ deep underground  Standing Orders for retaliation if Washington is wiped out “Destabilizing” Weapons not good—make war more likely  Neutron bombs kill people, not property  Anti-Ballistic Missiles (ABMs)—STAR WARS 1950s/60s Political Issue—Kennedy elected 1960 promising to fix “Missile Gap”

80 Cuba becomes Soviet Ally 1958—Castro overthrows U.S.-backed dictator Batista, pledges Socialist reforms, accepts Russian aid 1958—Castro overthrows U.S.-backed dictator Batista, pledges Socialist reforms, accepts Russian aid 1961—U.S.-trained and supplied Cuban exiles land at Bay of Pigs 1961—U.S.-trained and supplied Cuban exiles land at Bay of Pigs  Operation planned by CIA, approved by Pres. Eisenhower  Pres. Kennedy allows, but refuses to provide USAF support Invasion fails, but Castro turns to Soviets for more security assistance Invasion fails, but Castro turns to Soviets for more security assistance

81 Khrushchev's Gambit Sees Kennedy as weak, sees advantage in setting up ICBMs to “defend” Cuba Sees Kennedy as weak, sees advantage in setting up ICBMs to “defend” Cuba October 1961, we discover Russians setting up missile bases October 1961, we discover Russians setting up missile bases Proximity gives USSR superior first-strike capability—too little warning to retaliate Proximity gives USSR superior first-strike capability—too little warning to retaliate Kennedy demands removal Kennedy demands removal  Establishes Naval Blockade of Cuba  Tensions never higher— Fingers on Nuclear Trigger Khrushchev backs down, war averted Khrushchev backs down, war averted Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclea r proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is youn g, inexperienced, and can be rolled

82 Brinkmanship Bay of Pigs  Failed attempt to overthrow Castro in Cuba  Made the USA & Kennedy look weak. Cuban Missile Crisis  13 day Nuclear standoff between US & USSR  USSR remove missiles from Cuba  USA remove missiles from Turkey

83 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

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85 World Nuclear Arms Control Several Treaties try to limit Nuclear Proliferation  Partial Test Ban, 1963  Nuclear Non-Proliferation, 1968  India, Pakistan and North Korea sign—later withdraw  Comprehensive Test Ban 1996 U.S./UN Sanctions against violators  New agreement reached with PDRK over suspension of their program  Security Council debating action against Iran, but uranium production continues, missiles already exist  03 DEC 07—NEW DEVELOPMENT: U.S. Intelligence Estimate now says Iran suspended Nuke development in 2003

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88 1950s Culture and Prosperity

89 Return to Peacetime Economy After war  Americans worried about unemployment  Despite worries, economy continued to grow  Increases in consumer spending = no recession Servicemen’s Readjustment Act  AKA the GI Bill  Provided loans to veterans  Loans to buy homes, establish businesses, and attend college  Further boosted the economy Review: #32e

90 Ike as President Campaign slogan: “It’s time for a change!”  Believed that business growth was vital for the nation He took on an activist role  Advocated for large government projects Review: # 42

91 Ike as President Federal Highway Act of 1956  Eisenhower’s idea for Federal Highway Act  Transcontinental Motor Convoy – 2 months to cross  1956 – Congress passes act  Largest public works program in US History  Number of Americans owning cars increase  needed more room  Act appropriated $ 25 billion for a 10-year effort to construct more than 40,000 miles of interstate highway  Secretly created to transport nuclear weapons! Review: #42, 33a, 32g

92 Federal Highway Act of 1956

93 American Abundance Spread of wealth  After WWII, increase in country’s economic growth = dramatic changes in work environments  Less farmers due to factories  More technological advances that allowed farmers to do their job more efficiently  More Americans working in white-collar jobs  Worked for large corporations  Businesses competed with each other  some moved overseas  Multinational corporations located themselves closer to raw materials  Rise of franchises-store owners had multiple locations, fast-food and restaurants  Establishment of drive-ins and drive- thru (more freedom for teens) Review: #32d

94 American Abundance New Consumerism  Americans in 1950s had sense of conformity  Desire to buy same new products as neighbors  More disposable income  buying luxury items  IE: Fridges, A/Cs, washing machines, vacuums  More labor-saving machines: coffeemakers, blenders, lawn trimmers Review: # 32f

95 American Abundance Growth of Suburbia  Advertisers targeted consumers to move out to suburbia  Helped promote the “married couple lifestyle” and “baby boom”  Provided affordable home in safe, middle class neighborhoods  Helped regulate women to the role of the housewife  Levittown – NY town  One of the earliest new suburbs Review: # 33f, 33g

96 1950s Family Baby Boom  1945 – 1961  More than 65 million children born in US  Factors contributing to baby boom  Young couples who had delayed marriages due to war  Government encouraged growth of families by offering GI benefits to buy homes Review: # 33a

97 1950s Family 2. Women in the Fifties  Many women focused on traditional role as a homemaker  Emphasis on establishing families = discouraged employment  Assumption that a good mother was to stay at home  Still had an increase of women who worked outside of home  Women who worked did so to help their families maintain a comfortable lifestyle  By 1960 – nearly 1/3 of married women were part of workforce  Worked as secretaries or teachers

98 Technological Breakthroughs Advances in Electronics  1946 – Electronic Numeral Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)  US Army contracted out one of nation’s earliest computers  Made military calculations  Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC)  Handled business data  Launched computer revolution  Computers and other advancements in communication and transportation systems allowed many Americans to work more efficiently and quickly  As a result  families in 1950s had more free time and leisure activities became popular

99 Technological Breakthroughs 2. Medical Miracles  Development of powerful antibiotics  Introduction of combative drugs to fight off arthritis, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease  Struggles in fighting off Polio  1940s and 1950s – polio epidemics brought a wave of terror to postwar America  Primarily affected infants and younger people – affects nerves and can lead to paralysis  No one knew what caused disease Review: # 33b

100 Technological Breakthroughs cont. Medical Miracles  Jonas Salk  Developed injectable vaccine that prevented polio  First tested it on himself  moved on to test wife and 3 sons  Moved to bigger study = tested 2 million school children  1955 – vaccine was declared safe and effective Review: # 33b

101 New Mass Media Rise of Television Popularity  During WWII – Televisions became more affordable  1946  7,000 – 8,000 television sets in US  1957  40 million television sets  Television families in 1950s – simplistic and stereotyped entertainment  Television advertising became a large growing market  consumerism  Portrayed an ideal American society, however, did not reflect lifestyles of the impoverish or minorities Review: # 30c, 31

102 New Mass Media Hollywood and Radio Adapt  Movie and radio industry losing viewers to television  Movies  1952 – 1954  3-D films became revolutionized with use of 3-D glasses  Cinemascope movies – shown on panoramic screen – gave pull Hollywood needed  Radio  Specialized in presenting recorded music, news, talk shows, and shows for specific audiences  Targeted programming allowed radio to flourish  1948  1,690 stations  1957  3,600 stations

103 New Youth Culture Rock ‘n’ Roll  White artists began making music that spawned from rhythm and blues popularized by African American artists  Loud and heavy beat = ideal for dancing  Lyrics about romance, cars, and other themes that spoke to young people  Was wildly popular among nations teens  Artists: Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley, Comets  1956 – Elvis Presley emerges as first Rock ‘n’ Roll hero for teens  Dancing was see as crude, vulgar, and unacceptable by parents  Parents found the music unfamiliar as it focused on teen themes such as love Review: # 30b

104 New Youth Culture and Independence Beat Movement  Came from feeling among group members of being “beaten down” by American culture  Young people who sought to live unconventional lives – out of the norm  Examples:  Allen Ginsberg – poet who wrote “Howl”  Jack Kerouac – author who wrote On The Road Review: # 30a

105 African American Entertainers African American entertainers struggle to find acceptance within nation Television shut out African American entertainers African American rock ‘n’ roll singers had more luck in gaining acceptance  Examples: Ray Charles, Little Richard, Chuck Berry, and Drifters Rise of women groups as well  Examples: Crystals, the Chiffons, the Shirelles, and the Ronettes

106 Education Parents grew concerned over nation’s educational system as baby boomers began entering school system More schools were constructed  School enrollment increased by 13 million School districts struggled with building new schools and hiring new teachers  Frequent shortages of buildings and staff Review: # 32b

107 Education cont. After launches of Sputnik I and Sputnik II by Soviets in 1957 – America’s education worries intensified  Overall feeling that American education was behind  Life Magazine proclaimed “Crisis in Education” Efforts made to improve math and science education in schools Fears for young Americans dominated the education progression Review: # 32b

108 The Civil Rights Movement

109 Origins of Civil Rights Movement th Amendment (1868)  Reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for persons born or naturalized in the U.S  Forbade any state from depriving a person of life, liberty, or prosperity or to deny any person the equal protection of the laws th Amendment (1870)  Grants African American men the right to vote  States still used discriminatory practices to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote – especially in the South Review: #27a, 27b

110 Origins of Civil Rights Movement Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  US Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of state segregation law  “Separate-but-equal” standard was constitutional  States provide segregated facilities for different races – so long as they were equal in quality  Facilities such as schools suppose to be equal – in reality most schools in South were inferior to white ones Review: #27c

111 Origins of Civil Rights Movement National Association for Advancement of Colored People, NAACP (1909)  AKA NAACP  Civil rights organization in the US  Focused on legal strategies to confront civil rights issue in early years  1930s NAACP lawyers began challenging “separate-but-equal” doctrine  Sweatt v. Painter (1950) – NAACP wins case involving African American attending Law School at the University of Texas at Austin Review: #29c

112 Brown v. Board (1954) 1. Background  African American students denied admission to an all-white public school near homes  Thurgood Marshall – NAACP lawyer argued the case 2. Decision  NAACP lawyers argued that education received by African American students was inherently (by its very nature) inferior  Sent African American children message they were not good enough to be educated with others  Courts agreed  Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson  Marked end of legal segregation in public schools  Key turning point in Civil Rights Movement Review: #27d

113 Emmett Till (1955) 1. Background  14-year-old African American  From Chicago  Visiting family in Money, Mississippi 2. August 24, 1955  Bragged to his cousins and friends outside country store that his girlfriend back home was white  Cousins and friends did not believe him  dared Till to ask out white woman sitting behind counter  He went in bought some candy and flirted with her some Review: #29a

114 Emmett Till 3. August 28, 1955  Women’s husband returned from business trip and found out how Till spoke to his wife  Husband (Mose Wright) and brother-in-law (J.W. Milam) beat Till to death  Body was so disfigured could only identify by initialed ring  Murder of Till shocked people and caused many African Americans to join the NCAAP Review: #29a, 29c

115 Montgomery Bus Boycott ( ) 1. Rosa Parks  African American seamstress and local NAACP member  Refused to surrender her bus seat to white passenger in Montgomery, Alabama  Her arrest  led to local African American leaders start boycotting city’s public buses 2. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.  Pastor in Montgomery  Leader of boycott – led boycott for 13 months  Believed in nonviolent protest  Rallied boycotters at meetings in his church  Boycotted case to federal court  courts ruled that segregation on buses operated by city violated “equal protection” clause of the 14 th Amendment Review: # 27e, 29b

116 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957) 1. AKA SCLC 2. After Montgomery bus boycott – showed that nonviolent demonstration could be successful  African American ministers led by Dr. King established SCLC in Purpose  Eliminate segregation from American society  Encourage African Americans to register to vote 4. First president = Dr. King 5. Challenged segregation at:  Voting booths  Public transportation  Housing  Public accommodations Review: #27b, 27d

117 Civil Rights Act of 1957 (1957) 1. Civil Rights Act of 1957  Eisenhower believed firmly in right to vote  wanted to protect voting rights  Civil Rights Act of 1957  intended to protect the right of African Americans to vote 2. Strom Thurmond  US Senator from South Carolina  Opposed the Civil Rights Act of 1957  Conducted longest filibuster by a lone senator  24 hours and 18 minutes long Review: # 28b, 42,44

118 Little Rock 9 (1957) 1. Background  September 1957  Little Rock, Arkansas  School board won court order to admit nine African American students to Central High School  School with 2,000 white students 2. Orval Faubus – Governor of Arkansas  Believed to be moderate on racial issues – unlike many Southern politicians  Determined to win re-election  began to campaign as a defender of white supremacy  Ordered AK National Guard to prevent 9 African American students from entering school  White mob joined troops  Was televised  Used armed state forces to oppose authority of federal government Review: #28a

119 Little Rock 9 (1957) 3. Eisenhower  Had conference with Faubus  did nothing, Faubus refused to provide protection  Ordered federal troops to Little Rock to ensure that nine African American students could attend school  Law was upheld  troops stayed rest of school year Review: #28a, 42


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