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Conclusion Method Introduction Results Corresponding author: Sidsel Karsberg, National Research Centre for Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark,

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Presentation on theme: "Conclusion Method Introduction Results Corresponding author: Sidsel Karsberg, National Research Centre for Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conclusion Method Introduction Results Corresponding author: Sidsel Karsberg, National Research Centre for Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark, Despite a growing number of studies and reports indicating a very high and increasing prevalence of trauma exposure in Greenlandic adolescents, the knowledge on this subject is still very limited. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1)To estimate the lifetime prevalence of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 2)To examine the relationship between PTEs, estimated PTSD, and sociodemographic variables. In a Greenlandic sample from 4 different schools in 2 different minor towns in Northern Greenland, 269 students, aged (M=15.4; SD=1.84) were assessed for their level of exposure to 20 PTEs along with the psychological impact of these events. Of the Greenlandic students, 86% had been directly exposed to at least 1 PTE and 74.3% had been indirectly exposed to at least one PTE. The mean number of directly experienced PTEs was 2.8 and the mean number of indirectly experienced PTEs was 3.9. The most frequent direct events recorded were death of someone close, near drowning, threat of assault/beating, humiliation or persecution by others and attempted suicide. The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 17.1%, whereas another 14.2% reached a subclinical level of PTSD (missing the full diagnosis by 1 symptom). Education level of the father, and being exposed to multiple direct and indirect PTEs were significantly associated with an increase in PTSD symptoms. The findings indicate substantial mental health problems in Greenlandic adolescents and that these are associated with various types of PTEs. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Greenlandic adolescents are more exposed to certain specific PTEs than adolescents in similar studies from other nations. The present study revealed that Greenlandic girls are particularly vulnerable towards experiencing PTEs. Indeed, in general, girls reported more experiences of direct and indirect PTEs than boys. Furthermore, girls reported being more commonly exposed to specific types of PTEs compared to boys. Studies with similar designs from other cultures Table 3: Analysis of variance between Trauma and Life events and PTSD Severity. One-way Anova. F-ratio values PTSDEffectsizedf School4.586³0.073 Gender18.533⁵ Age2.0890,066 Education father2.666¹ Education Mother Not living with two parents4.069²0.042 Direct exposure9.991⁵ Indirect exposure2.8⁵ p≤ ¹⁾.05 ²⁾.01 ³⁾.005 ⁴⁾.001 ⁵⁾.0005 Table 1: Trauma and Life Events According to Exposure and Gender Direct exposureIndirect exposure MalesFemales AllMalesFemalesAll Event (n=114)(n=151) (n=269ᵃ)(n=114)(n=151)(n=269ᵃ) 1. Traffic accident Other serious accidents Physical assault Rape ³⁾ Witnessed other people being injured or killed05.33¹⁾ Came close to being injured or killed Threatened to be beaten Near-drowning ¹⁾ 9. Attempted suicide ⁴⁾ Robbery/theft Pregnancy/abortion ⁵⁾ Serious illness Death of someone close Divorce Sexual abuse ²⁾ ³⁾ 16. Physical abuse Severe childhood neglect ¹⁾ 18. Humiliation or persecution by others (bullying) Absence of a parent ¹⁾ Other traumas ᵃ) Three did not state their gender ᵇ) p≤.05 ¹⁾.05 ²⁾.01 ³⁾.005 ⁴⁾.001 ⁵⁾.0005 Table 2. Direct exposure comparison total samples (%) DenmarkIcelandIsraelLithuania The Faroe Islands IndiaKenyaGreenland Event 1. Traffic accident Other serious accidents Physical assault Rape Witnessed other people being injured or killed Came close to being injured or killed Threatened to be beaten Near-drowning Attempted suicide Robbery/theft Pregnancy/abortion Serious illness , Death of someone close Divorce Sexual abuse Physical abuse Severe childhood neglect Humiliation or persecution by others (bullying) Absence of a parent Other traumas Elklit A. Victimization and PTSD in a Danish national youth probability sample. J Am Acad Child Psy. 2002; 41: Bödvarsdottir I, Elklit A. Victimization and PTSD-like states in an Icelandic youth probability sample. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7:1-26. Rhiger M, Elklit A, Lasgaard M. Trauma in an Israeli youth sample: an investigation of the prevalence and psychological impact of exposure to traumatic experiences. Nord Psychol. 2008; 60: Domanskaite-Gota V, Elklit A, Christiansen DM. Victimization and PTSD in a Lithuanian national youth probability sample. Nord Psychol. 2009; 61:6681. Petersen T, Elklit A, Olesen JG. Victimization and PTSD in a Faroese youth total-population sample. Scand J Psychol. 2010;51:5662. Rasmussen, D.J., Karsberg, S., Karstoft, K-I. & Elklit, A. Victimization and PTSD in an Indian youth sample from Pune City. O J Epi. 2012; 3; Doi: /ojepi Karsberg S, Elklit A. Victimization and PTSD in a Rural Kenyan youth sample. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 2012;8:


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