3 Today’s ObjectivesAnalyze the issues that gave rise to the Civil Rights Movement from post-reconstruction to the modern movement. Trace the major events of the modern movement and compare and contrast the strategies and tactics for social change used by leading individuals/groups.
4 Oppression in the South Jim Crow LawsPoll TaxesSouthern states made people pay a tax to voteLiteracy TestsSouthern states required people to pass a literacy test in order to vote.Grandfather ClauseYou could only vote if your grandfather did.In the late 1800s most Southern Blacks’ grandparents grew up as slaves.
5 Economic Barriers Share Cropping Tenant Farming (rented land) Under this system, Southern blacks farmed land that they rented from white land owners.White land owners required them to turn over all the crops that they grew except what they needed to live on. (Share their crop)This kept Southern blacks in a continuous state of poverty.
6 Segregation in the United States De Jure SegregationDe facto SegregationSegregation imposed by Law.Private citizens enforcing segregation practices within their communities
7 TacticsCivil Rights Activists used several different tactics (methods) to advance the causes of the civil rights movement.Civil Disobedience/Public Demonstrations/Passive ResistanceSelf-SegregationBlack Power
8 Organizing the Movement To make the CRM work, Arican Americans had to organize themselves. These organizations included:CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY (CORE): Core made SIT-INS, and other non-violent tactics popular.SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE (SCLC): Led by Dr. King, organized ministers to help with the CRM and help increase black voter registration. Helped cement the CHURCH’S role in the Civil Rights Movement.
9 Using Civil Disobedience WEB DuboisMartin Luther King Jr.Founded the Niagara Movement which eventually became the NAACP.Used Civil Disobedience to draw media attention to the injustices of the law.Used Civil Disobedience to challenge laws in Court.Known for his method of passive resistance.Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.After the Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama the SCLC met to decide how to non- violently desegregate bus systems across the South.
10 Examples of Civil Disobedience Sit-insCivil Rights Activists went and literally sat in public places in protest of segregation.Restaurants were a popular location for these.
11 Examples of Civil Disobedience Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964Fannie Lou HamerWent to Indianola to register to vote. 1962Hamer and her colleagues were beaten brutally by police and arrested.This sparked a mobilization of people in Mississippi and organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.She was able to speak at the Democratic Convention about her experiences and show on the national stage the injustices surrounding voting rights in the South. 1964
12 Examples of Civil Disobedience Bus Boycott and Freedom RidesMontgomery Bus BoycottRosa Parks refused to give up her seat and was arrested for sitting in the whites only section.Civil Rights Activist boycotted (refused to use) the Montgomery Bus System.Freedom RidesBlack and white college students rode busses together through the segregated south.They experienced violence and arrests in almost every city they traveled to.
13 Examples of Public Demonstrations March from Selma to MontgomeryMarches on WashingtonCivil Rights Activists joined together in a march from Selma, AL to Montgomery, AL.The day became known as Bloody Sunday as the marchers were beaten by Alabama State Police.A. Phillip Randolph proposed a march on Washington during World War II in protest of discrimination against black defense industry workers.Martin Luther King Jr. led a March on Washington where he delivered his I have a dream speech.This is now one of the most recognized speeches in history.
15 Self-Segregation Marcus Garvey Started the back to Africa movement. Garvey believed that people of African descent should return to their homeland.
16 Self-Segregation and Black Power Malcolm XA Fiery speaker who used “aggressive” tactics to promote black power and a separation of the races.Stokely CarmichaelHead of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.(SNCC)Moved away from MLKs desire for peaceful integration toward self- segregation and the Black Power Movement.
17 Self-Segregation and Black Power The Black Panther PartyVery aggressive organization.Literally began arming themselves.Used militant tactics.
18 The Big PictureHow did different groups use different tactics to advance the causes of the Civil Rights Movement? Which of these were the most effective?