It was a period of rapid growth with breakthroughs in water powered machines and high production. Hand powered machines were not efficient enough to fill large orders so a man named Richard Arkwright came up with a revolutionary idea His design would allow 1 machine to do the work of 50 people
He created a wheel with boards of wood that would catch the water and turn a master axle called a vertical shaft, this puts the whole operation in motion. One of these water wheel inventions could power an entire textile mill.
Labor Unions- Groups that tried to improve pay and working conditions.
Labor Unions problems Working late Child labor Safety
Strikes Strikes are workers on strike that refuse to work until employers meet their demands Most early strikes weren't successful. A lot of workers where on strike for the late hours they had to work and safety and wages.
President Martin Van Buren He granted a 10 hour work day in 1840 for many federal employees Men and women worked 12 to 14 hours per day, six days per week.
WAGES!!!!! HOURS!!!!!!! SAFETY !!!!!!!!!!!! Mr. Benson Meow :3
Steamboat Steamboats made traveling up river and across the ocean very easy. The steamboat had increased trade and profits. The consumers would get there goods faster and more cheaper. There were about 500 steamboats in the US by 1840. In the 1850’s, the steamboats were being used for trade and for transporting people across the Atlantic Ocean.
Robert Fulton In 1803 Robert Fulton tested his first steamboat in France. Later, Robert tested his first full sized steamboat called the Clermont. The Clermont could travel up current of the Hudson River with ease. Fulton had designed the first steamboat warship. He also designed the first submarine, called Nautilus.
Clermont While the Clermont, as his new steamboat was named, was under construction, Fulton publicly demonstrated in the presence of naval experts the effectiveness of his torpedo invention by blowing up a brig in New York harbor, July 20, 1807. The Clermont was built by Charles Brown, a well-known New York ship- builder. It was 133 feet long, seven feet deep, and eighteen feet broad, and was decked over for a short distance at bow and stern. Under Fulton's immediate direction the Watt steam-engine was placed in the forward part of the boat and left open to view. Back of it was installed the twenty-foot boiler set in brick-work and housed over. Two side paddle-wheels, fifteen feet in diameter, propelled the boat. On Aug. 17, 1807, the Clermont began her memorable voyage up the Hudson to Albany and return. The elapsed time for the round trip was five days, but the Clermont was actually under way only sixty-two hours, the speed attained having been close to five miles an hour.
The Steamboat Transportation Revolution: a period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation In 1803, Robert Fulton invented the first full sized commercial steamboat; The Clemont In 1807 the Clemont traveled against the current up the Hudson river Increased trade and profits because goods could be moved quicker and was cheaper to transport goods
The Steamboat John Rumsey and John Fitch worked with steamboat ideas 1780’s that were used for entrepreneurs who could move goods up and down The Hudson, Connecticut, and Providence river Boats were soon “plying” there way through Steemwheeler was the first steamboat on western waters, this boat was 116-foot
Cotton gin- a machine that removes seeds from short-staple cotton Each ball of cotton fiber had numerous seeds embedded in the cotton, and they had to be either picked out by hand or run through a roller gin The first cotton gin had been in use since its unknown early origins—possibly the twelfth century—in India and China and was imported by British colonists to North America Eli Whitney, the inventor of the new cotton gin, got the idea for the cotton gin from a Georgia plantation that had a similar machine but it did not work very well Planters (large-scale farmers who held more than 20 slaves) built cotton gins that could process tons of cotton much faster than hand processing Before Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney in 1793 created a working model of a hand-cranked mechanical device that used a rotating, wire-toothed cylinder to remove cotton seeds He wanted to keep this device a secret As the fibers passed through the metal teeth, the teeth caught and removed the seeds But the design had some issues like the wire teeth occasionally broke off and became entangled in the cotton Unfortunately, Whitney was unable to produce enough machines to meet the people’s demand When people found out about Whitney's design, manufacturers throughout the nation seized the opportunity to enrich themselves by producing cotton gins Several gin manufacturers improved the design, replacing the breakable wire teeth with sections of fine-toothed saw blade, creating the so-called saw gin Cotton Gin
Americans and others who opposed immigration were called nativist. “Nativist movements" or sometimes "revitalization" movements. These movements consist of people who feel they are being oppressed by a foreign colonizing government that is destroying their traditional way of life and is removing them from their land.
In 1840s and 1850s some nativists became politically active. Yet a great deal of native-born Americans feared losing their jobs to immigrants who might work for lower wages. Some felt implicitly threatened by the new immigrants cultures and religions. While many immigrants went to the Midwest to get farmland, other immigrants filled the need for cheap labor in towns and cities.
In 1849 nativists founded a political organization, the Know-Nothing Party, that supported measures making it difficult for foreigners to become citizens or hold office. They also wanted to require immigrants to live in the United States for 21 years before becoming citizens. City jobs drew immigrants from many nations as well as migrants from rural parts of US.
The group that was against alcohol was called, Social Reforming Movement or SRM. Countless Americans thought that Alcohol abuse caused family violence and criminal behavior. Americans worries about the effects of alcohol led to growth of temperance movement. Complained that America drank too much in the 1830s. 8 gallons of alcohol was consumed per person in 1830
In 1835 the SRM claimed more than 1.5 million members in 8 thousand locations By 1836 SRM lost most of their wealthy supporters in south America.
An average American can consume 7 gallons of alcohol per year in the 1830’s. Americans thought alcohol abuse caused -social problems -family violence -poverty -criminal behavior The temperance movement blossomed nationally over the next decade, with the creation of the American Temperance Society in 1826. Temperance
This reform effort urged people to use self-discipline to stop drinking hard liquor. They asked people to limit themselves to beer and wine in small amounts. Minister Lyman Beecher spoke widely about evils of alcohol. He claimed people who drank alcohol “neglecting the education of their families and corrupting their morals.” Temperance
Prisoners were left in dark cells with no clothes or heat and were chained to walls and beaten. The prison also held runaway children and orphans Some children survived by begging or stealing, they also got the same punishment as adults criminals Mentally ill patients were locked up and treated like animals
Middle class reformer who visited prisons throughout Massachusetts starting in 1841. Reported that mentally ill people frequently were jailed criminals. Dix spoke of what she saw to the state legislature. Because of what she had reported the government built faculties for the ill.
Prison Reform By: Randy Keetley & Taylor Thorpe
Dorothea Dix Dorothea Dix was a middle class reformer who visited prisons throughout Massachusetts at the beginning of 1841. Dorothea Dix spoke about what she saw to the legislator about mentally ill people getting ill a lot and being sent to jail, they were put in cells without clothes and heat also they were beaten. Josiah Quincy asked the young offenders to receive different punishments than the adults.
Changing rules for some prisoners Removed mentally ill people from prison to a facility for mentally ill people. Removed runaway children from prison to a reform school where they were trained useful skills for life. One hundred hospitals were built for mentally ill people with professional care.
American Anti- Slavery Society By Brandon.L and Andrew.R
American Anti-Slavery Society Abolition- the legal prohibition and ending of slavery, especially of slavery of blacks in the U.S.
American Anti-Slavery Society The Abolitionists were people who hated slavery and wanted to put an end to it, they used different ways to convince people. Many people who were against slavery made pamphlets and books that moved many people and made them Anti- Slavery.
American Anti-Slavery Society One of the things Abolitionists used was pictures.
American Anti-Slavery Society William Lloyd Garrison was a poet who wrote abolitionist poems and convinced people to put an end to it.
American Anti-Slavery Society “Resolved, That the compact which exists between the North and the South is a covenant with death and an agreement with hell; involving both parties in atrocious criminality, and should be immediately annulled. - William Lloyd Garrison.
Abolition was a belief in the complete end to slavery Members of the Abolitionist movement wanted emancipation (freedom) and racial equality for African Americans William Lloyd Garrison, a leader of the Abolitionist movement, published an abolitionist movement newspaper, The Liberator. “Where there is a human being I see god-giving rights…” said Garrison He also create The American Anti-Slavery Society Angelina and Sarah Grimke were two white southern women who wanted to abolish slavery forever They disagreed with their parents because their parents wanted slaves Society people spread anti-slavery throughout the congress 1839 Grimke's sisters wrote American slavery as it is It was one of the most anti-slavery works of art Liberator and anti-slavery society relied on support from free African Americans Abolition
Born a slave but ran away at the age of twenty. Secretly learned Literacy. Antislavery society wanted to have him give regular lectures and speeches. Published the Newspaper North Star Wrote several autobiographies. (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1539.html)http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1539.html
Former slave Claimed God called her to travel through the US and preach the truth about slavery and women’s rights Became legendary in the antislavery movement She was the first black woman to win a slander suit. Also the first black woman to test the legality of segregation of Washington D.C. (http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetails)http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetails
1830’s organized group was helping slaves escape from the South The railroad never had a central Leadership The fugitives wore disguises. At night they were led by people known as conductors. Fugitives had no guideposts except the stars. They stopped to rest during the day at “Stations” Stations: Barns, attics, or other places.
Many people associated with the Underground Railroad became well known, most famous Harriet Tubman. She reportedly helped three hundred slaves through her own action. The Underground Railroad was neither a railroad nor underground. It was a hidden network of people who agreed to help runaway slaves. Frederick Douglass (c. 1817–1895) a fugitive slave who was a spokesperson, used his newspaper offices as a station on the Underground Railroad, helping countless runaway slaves on their road to freedom.
"Underground Railroad." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 8. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1602-1604. Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 20 Apr. 2012.
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION By Olivia Cubbage and Claire Norden
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION The Seneca Falls Convention was the first public meeting about women’s rights held in the United States. It opened on July 19 th 1848, in Seneca Falls, New York.
ELIZABETH CADY STANTON 1840- Stanton went to an anti-slavery convention with husband and was forced to sit in a separate gallery with the other women. Stanton and her friend, Lucretia Mott, wanted to change the way people thought about women. Eight years passed before Stanton and Mott finally announced the Seneca Falls convention.
OTHER LEADERS William Lloyd Garrison- One of the founders of the anti-slavery convection and sat with women in protest. Lucy Stone- She was a gifted speaker who Stanton called “the first who really stirred the nation’s heart”. Susan B. Anthony- Brought strong, organizational skills to women’s rights movement. She believed women should be allowed to enter male professions such as religion and law. Anthony led a campaign to change the laws regarding property rights and collected more than 6,000 signatures in a petition in New York.
DECLARATION OF SENTIMENTS Declaration of Sentiments was a document with detailed beliefs about social injustice toward women. Used the DOI as a basis for the language in the DOS. --There were 18 charges against men (same that had been charged against King George III) -DOS signed by 100 people
A book that would inspire millions to end slavery UNCLE TOM’S CABIN
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN ABOUT THE BOOK Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe The book tells the harsh cruelty of slavery through a fictional character named Tom Tom is taken from his wife and becomes the slave of a man named Legree In a rage, Tom is beaten to death The idea for the book was conceived when Harriet met some fugitive slaves and heard their stories
UNCLE TOM’S CABIN THE RESULTS OF THE BOOK Due to the popularity of her book, she was known as the “the little lady who made this big war” by Abraham Lincoln Book was read by 2 million people and was called a book that created 2 million abolitionists The book also caused an outrage in the south She received the honor of meeting the president for this one book Known to be the most profound woman writer of the 19 th century