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A number of significant changes occurred in Britain as a result of the Industrial Revolution: Changes to Agriculture Massive growth of the economy Development.

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Presentation on theme: "A number of significant changes occurred in Britain as a result of the Industrial Revolution: Changes to Agriculture Massive growth of the economy Development."— Presentation transcript:


2 A number of significant changes occurred in Britain as a result of the Industrial Revolution: Changes to Agriculture Massive growth of the economy Development of a factory system based on machines rather than people Changes to modes of transportation

3 Revolutionizing the English Countryside

4 Consolidate: to combine together two or more things into one Cultivated: process of loosing up soil and mixing in nutrients to help plants grow

5 Medieval times used strip farming – small scattered strips of land for farming Considered to be very inefficient Landowners began to consolidate the small strips into large fields A movement called “enclosure” Larger fields mean less time farming = more profits

6 At the same time as enclosures, laws changed to allow common land to be sold to wealthy landowners Took away land from village people who depended on the land as grazing land for their sheep, as well as for wood, acorns and other loose food products for survival Many small farmers were negatively effected by the enclosures and were forced to sell their farms to rich landowners for very little

7 Enclosures allowed farming to become a business rather than just a way to feed the family Resulted in new farming techniques as well as new plants and animals Success of these new farms was the basis of the agricultural revolution as they revolutionized the look of the English countryside

8 Landowners believed better farm animals would bring higher profits Landowners selectively bred new breeds of animals that were stronger than those of medieval times Cows produced better and more meat and sheep produced more wool These animals were expensive to breed and maintain and soon even more farmers were out of business

9 As landowners focused even more on profits, they began to invest in better farming technologies They understood that making a profit was dependent on taking some financial risks Goal for these landowners was to make their land produce more crops for less money They wanted to find ways to lower their cost of production

10 English inventor who tried to understand how soil helped plants to grow Found that plants grew better when soil was cultivated and enriched with manure Invented the “seed drill” – device pulled from horses that turned the soil and planted neat rows of seeds Cut down on seeds lost to birds

11 English lord and politician; also a wealthy landowner When he retired he focused on making his farms more profitable Found that by rotating what crops he grew each year, he could produce more of each crop Better use of the soil; allowed nutrients in the soil to replenish Left-over’s could be used as inexpensive food for animals in the winter

12 As larger landowners became even more wealthy, many small farmers were forced to sell their land to survive but the money ran out quickly As a result, many families moved to the cities looking for work – led to overcrowded poor sections in many of the main cities On the other hand, the success of the larger farms meant these larger city populations could be fed

13 Growing the Economy of England

14 Entrepreneurs: refers to business people who organize, run or operate a business Regulations: rules put in place about how something can be done Abundant: lots of something. Loom: machine used to make strings of yarn into cloth

15 After the Glorious Revolution (think back to the English Civil War!), Parliament now included many entrepreneurs from the middle class Ordinary people, including women, were still not a part of Parliament and could not vote Two main groups in Parliament: Tories: rich landowners Whigs: represented the middle class

16 Growing number of middle class in Parliament led the government to follow a laissez-faire economic policy Business and industry should function free of government interference and regulations Competition and self-interest would motivate people to make their industries better which would create a wealthier and more productive economy = benefit society in general Allowed business owners to keep costs low – allowed them to pay workers as little as possible to increase their profits

17 Britain had a large textile industry – wool from sheep was used throughout the world British wool was considered the highest quality and was in demand around the world Enclosures made it possible and profitable to maintain enormous herds of sheep Allowed cheap and efficient harvesting of sheep’s wool Massive growth in the textile industry helped improve the British economy overall A variety of improvements in the textile industries occurred during the Industrial Revolution…

18 “Flying Shuttle” Invented by John Kay in 1733 Used springs and levers to weave yarn faster on large looms - yarn could be produced faster Put one of the original shuttle throwers out of work “Spinning Jenny” Built by James Hargreaves in 1764 Allowed spinners to do the work of multiple spinners at the same time Built to reduce the yarn shortage that resulted after weaving techniques improved - soon used all over England

19 “Flying Shuttle” “Spinning Jenny”

20 “Water Frame” Improved the way yarn was spun – even faster than the Spinning Jenny “The Mule” Combined the best features of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame Once an abundant amount of yarn was spun, improvements to the processes of spinning and weaving yarn continued Led to enormous looms in factories that required a new kind of power to run…Steam!

21 As factories began to grow, so did the need for a more secure power source First breakthrough – Thomas Newcombe invented an engine that harnessed the power of compressed steam Second, and real, breakthrough came from James Watts – he found a way to better use the compressed steam from Newcombe’s engine Watts adapted the engine so that it could power larger machines Watts effectively solved the problem of how to power the Industrial Revolution

22 Grew with the other changes of the revolution Development of cast iron – easier and cheaper to make Became a massive industry Led to growth of the coal industry which was used in the production of cast iron Coal was also vital because it was needed to fuel the steam engine Coal mines were a dark and dangerous place and workers were paid meagerly Even so, without coal, the revolution would not have worked

23 Moving the Industrial Revolution Forward

24 Raw materials: an unprocessed, natural product used in creating items ex. wool right off the sheep or cocoa beans Manufactured goods: a finished product; usually created in a factory or on a production line

25 The massive amounts of goods being produced during the Industrial Revolution needed to be transported around Great Britain Factories also required resources and raw materials such as coal Prior to the revolution, transportation systems in England were terrible Uneven and muddy roads; no long straight roads from one place to another Use of pack horses and mules limited how much could be carried in each load; horses also needed water, rest and food (expensive and time consuming)

26 Turnpike system – way of getting roads built at no cost to the government Private companies were allowed to build a section of road and charge tolls (taxes) to anyone who used their roads Best builder: James Macadam – built roads that were three layers of stone and were sloped from the middle to allow proper drainage

27 Investors also began to build new canals and waterways to transport goods and people Canals were also built to connect larger waterways By the early 19 th century, there was over 4000 km of canals across England

28 New and better roads meant better transportation of goods, people and mail Improved transportation methods also made it possible to ship raw materials and manufactured goods relatively quickly and cheaper Helped to improve the overall profits of the country and its people

29 Transportation continued to improve as inventors began to use the steam engine to build locomotives and larger railway systems 1829: George and Robert Stephenson built a locomotive called “The Rocket” Travelled at the “unheard of speed” of 39km/hr! By the mid 1800’s, countries all across Europe and North America had built railway lines to transport goods and people “The Rocket”

30 From Farms to Factories

31 Obsolete: does not exist anymore Deteriorated: to get worse Appalled: be filled with shock or horror about something

32 Prior to the Industrial Revolution, people produced items in their home and then items were picked up and the people were paid a fixed price for each complete item, such as a spool of yarn – known as the cottage system Allowed people to work from home and to pick up extra work such as spinning yarn if they needed money Unfortunately, the pay was not very good and prices were often lowered when there was more supply than demand With the growth of large factories and large machines that could not operate in houses, the cottage system became obsolete

33 Large machines required more space and a secure source of power – something that couldn’t be done in a home Growth of factories changed the lives of thousands of people in Britain Many moved from the farms to cities as the growth of factories led to the development of massive cities

34 Factory system also centralized production – all parts of an item were produced under one roof Allowed owners to lower their costs and to control every step in production

35 While life improved for the wealthy who benefited from the growth of factories, the lives of factory workers deteriorated rapidly Many people labored long hours in noisy, dirty and unsafe buildings for very little pay Factory age produced some of the worst conditions for everyday workers

36 Many of the people suffering these horrendous conditions were children Many young children were sent to work as families were poor and needed the money and education was not compulsory Many started as young as 5 years old Children were particularly useful because of their small size – worked in coal mines digging tunnels or as chimney sweepers Children were paid even less, worked longer hours and were often beaten by the factory owners

37 Working conditions became so bad that during the 18 th and 19 th centuries, social reformers tried to improve these conditions for workers Workers also tried to band together to improve their conditions by creating guilds (modern-day unions) but these groups were declared illegal by the government Rich factory owners in Parliament did want to have to pay their workers more or hurt their profits Eventually though, the government became appalled at the working conditions and created new laws called the Factory Acts to improve working conditions

38 Children were the first to benefit from these Acts Limited the working hours for children to 12; reduced even further later on Made it illegal to hire a child under 9 years old Unfortunately, there were no government inspectors to ensure the rules were followed and many people worked despite the conditions simply because they needed the money Attitudes of middle and upper class also made it difficult – believed working class should continue to work as much as possible or else they would be “lazy”

39 The People of the Industrial Revolution

40 Rigid: very stiff or unchanging Menial jobs: refers to work that was considered servant work; was often very hard physical labor

41 Britain had a rigid and complex social structure during the 18 th and 19 th centuries Upper Class – known as “Society” – best education, lots of money, considered the “right people to know” Upper Middle Class – had their own culture and amusements; people worked as professionals (ex. lawyer) Lower Middle Class – “white collar workers” (ex. store owners or office workers) Lower Class – people who worked in trades or in a factory Had their own ranking system: 1)skilled labor, 2) unskilled labor, 3) casual labor

42 Disappearance of the cottage system meant fewer jobs for women Those who stayed in the countryside became servants for rich land owning families or worked as day laborers on farms Many women were forced to work in factories in the cities – did many of the same dirty and dangerous jobs as men and were often paid even less For some women, the Industrial Revolution gave them access to cash which meant independence – did help to improve the lives of some working and middle class women

43 Rapid and massive growth of the Industrial Revolution led to poorly planned cities with large slum areas with no water or sewer systems Buildings were poorly built and often cramped – one large family per single room Crime and disease was widespread in these slums

44 Britain’s Poor Laws, in existence since the 16 th century, remained unchanged and were ineffective Many families were forced into workhouses – in exchange for shelter and little food they worked menial jobs Llanfyllin Dolydd Poorhouse – Oliver Twist

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