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World History 1750- Present World War II Mussolini set his eyes on conquest May 1936: conquered Ethiopia.

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Presentation on theme: "World History 1750- Present World War II Mussolini set his eyes on conquest May 1936: conquered Ethiopia."— Presentation transcript:

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2 World History Present

3 World War II

4 Mussolini set his eyes on conquest May 1936: conquered Ethiopia

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7 1936: Hitler and Mussolini formed an alliance  Mussolini called it an axis March 7, 1936: German troops entered Rhineland

8 March 1938: German troops annexed Austria Sept: 1938: Hitler demanded Sudetenland

9 WWII

10 Hitler and Mussolini met with British PM, Neville Chamberlain and French president, Edouard Daladier France and Britain agreed Germany could have Sudetenland if he promised no more expansion Czechoslovakia was not allowed to attend the meeting

11 Chamberlain declared “Peace in our Time” Appeasement: giving into the demands of an aggressor in order to insure peace

12 Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.” Winston Churchill, British Parliament

13 WWII Francisco Franco

14  Spain was the site of numerous strikes, riots, and assassinations  General Francisco Franco led a rebellion Began Civil War

15  Germany and Italy provided planes, tanks, and soldiers to Franco 1937: Hitler’s Condor Legion bombed Guernica  USSR sent weapons and supplies to the republic

16  Seen as “dress-rehearsal” for WWII  March 1939, Franco won and set up military dictatorship Ruled until death in 1975

17 Pablo Picasso, Guernica

18 WWII

19  March 1939: Hitler annexed the rest of western Czechoslovakia  April 1939: Italy annexed Albania  No shots fired either time

20 WWII

21  1939: Hitler demanded the Polish port of Danzig to reunite Germany  Britain and France threatened war  Look at map on page 375

22  Hitler feared Russian involvement (two-front war)  August: Hitler and Stalin signed a Nonaggression Pact

23  Publicly: agreed not to fight one another  Secretly: agreed to divide rest of eastern Europe between themselves

24  Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland using blitzkrieg (lightening war)  Sept. 3, 1939: Britain and France declared war on Germany

25  Stalin joined and in less than 1 month, Poland was conquered  Poland was divided between USSR and Germany  Winter set in and fighting stopped Known as the “phony war”

26 WWII

27  France built the Maginot Line after WWI Huge fortifications Underground railway Built only on France’s border with Germany Guns only faced east

28  April 9, 1940: Hitler used blitzkrieg to annex Denmark and Norway  May 10, 1940: Germany conquered the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg

29  France rushed to extend the Maginot Line, but was too late  Germany went through Belgium and into France, splitting Allied forces

30 WWII

31  Northern forces retreated to Dunkirk  For 9 days, troops used private boats to escape France and flee to Britain

32  The British navy and volunteer citizens rushed to the shore to rescue their countrymen  Bombarded by the Luftwaffe, 340,000 soldiers in 900 vessels reached Britain

33 WWII

34  June 22, France formally surrendered to Germany  Germany occupied most of France  A puppet-government was set up in Vichy (southern France)

35 WWII

36  August – September 1940 Large aerial bombing Originally, Hitler only targeted vital military locations When Britain refused to surrender, Hitler attacked British cities, hoping the citizens would demand peace

37  The bombing of cities was known as the Blitz  Lasted until May 1941

38  Britain’s RAF rebuilt and never allowed Germany to gain air superiority  Hundreds of pilots died, over 20,000 Londoners died, and 70,000 British were killed

39 “Never the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” - Winston Churchill “Never the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.” - Winston Churchill

40 WWII

41  Japan wanted Manchuria  Mukden Incident: Japanese soldiers (dressed like Chinese soldiers) destroyed a railroad  Japan then overtook all of Manchuria, claimed it was independent, and named it Manchukuo

42  League of Nations ordered Japan to withdraw from China  Instead, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations  League did nothing (no real power)

43  Japan then began to move further into China  Rape of Nanking (Nanjing) Japanese killed 100,000 – 300,000 Chinese civilians Raped numerous women and children

44  Britain could not send men, but did send supplies to China over the Burma Road 700-mile highway linking Burma (Myanmar) to China

45  China had been weakened due to a brutal civil war, pitting Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek, nationalist) against Mao Zedong (communist) The two eventually focused on fighting Japan

46  Japan announced it wanted a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere All Asian nations joined together to remove western powers Really, an excuse to conquer more territory and add resources to help it conquer China

47  Sept. 1940: Japan aligned with Germany and Italy in the Tripartite Pact (Axis Powers)  Japan then overtook French Indochina and the Dutch East Indies

48 WWII

49  After WWI, the U.S. retreated into isolationism  To stay out of WWII, Congress passed Neutrality Acts

50  1 st, Banned U.S. from providing weapons to nations at war  2 nd, Banned loans to warring nations  3 rd, Cash-and-Carry: permitted trade of non-military goods as long as the other country paid cash and transported the cargo

51 WWII

52  After Germany invaded France, the U.S. changed the Neutrality acts to allow the U.S. to send supplies to Britain in exchange for naval bases  The America First Committee formed to pressure Congress to not send further aid

53  Over 800,000 members  Most famous was Charles Lindbergh

54 WWII

55  1940  First peacetime draft in the nation’s history  Required all males, 21-36, to register

56 WWII “The moment approaches when we shall no longer be able to pay cash for shipping and other supplies” - Winston Churchill, in a letter to FDR “We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious as war itself.” - FDR, in response to aiding Britain

57  May 1941: Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act Stated Roosevelt could aid any nation whose defense was vital to U.S. defense FDR sent aid to Britain (eventually USSR also) FDR

58 WWII

59  August 1941: Secret meeting between Roosevelt and Churchill  Agreed Nazi tyranny must end

60 WWII “A date which will live in infamy”

61  As Japan continued to expand, Roosevelt cut off all shipments of scrap iron and oil to Japan  He also froze all Japanese assets in America

62  October 1941: General Tojo Hideki became PM of Japan (supported war against U.S.)  Dec. 7, 1941: Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor hoping to cripple the U.S. Pacific Fleet

63  2,400 Americans killed  1,200 wounded  200 planes damaged or destroyed  8 of the 9 battleships had been destroyed  Japan only lost 29 planes

64  Dec. 8, 1941: FDR asked Congress to declare war on Japan  Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.

65 WWII

66  War Production Board: Gov’t agency that converted consumer industries into wartime industries  The economy recovered from the Great Depression due to the extra jobs and increased production

67 WWII

68  June 1943  Outlawed strikes until the war was over

69 WWII

70  The gov’t increased taxes and borrowed from banks and private investors  It also sold Treasury Bonds, known as Liberty Bonds

71 WWII “Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.” - message from the Office of War Information “Use it up, wear it out, make it do or do without.” - message from the Office of War Information

72  Rationing: Metal (zippers) for weapons, vehicles, and helmets Rubber (car and bicycle tires) for military vehicles Nylon (stockings) for parachutes Cloth (clothes) for uniforms Oil Food Look at picture on page 598.

73  Americans were asked to plant Victory Gardens  Practiced nighttime blackouts in case of bombing raids  Women knitted scarves and socks for troops

74  Recycling increased: Tin cans, pots, pans, razor blades, shovels, and lipstick tubes

75 WWII

76  U.S. and Britain both used convoy system to get supplies to Britain  They also used sonar to detect U- boats  Germany countered by using “wolf packs”

77  June 1942: over 175 ships sunk by Germany  Some off the coast of Florida  Look at picture on page 601.

78  Sonar and communication technology improved  U.S. used long-range bombers to attack subs, reducing their effectiveness

79 WWII

80  June 22, 1941: German troops invaded USSR  Hundreds of thousands of Soviet soldiers captured  Germany drove deep into Soviet territory

81  By Autumn, German troops were outside Moscow, Leningrad, and Stalingrad

82 World War II

83  : Japan conquered numerous territories Dutch East Indies (British) for oil Burma and Malaya (British) for rubber Hong Kong and Singapore (British)

84 World War II

85  March 1942: U.S. general Douglas MacArthur forced to flee the Philippines Vowed ‘I shall return” May 6: 76,000 Americans and Filipinos forced to surrender

86  Bataan Death March: Japanese forced the POWS to march over 60 miles to a POW camp over 6-12 days Denied water and rest Many beaten and tortured, some executed Over 10,000 died In the camps, another 15,000 died

87 World War II

88  May 1942: American navy vs. Japanese navy Aircraft carriers were more than 70 miles apart Fought entirely by planes Draw, but it prevented Japan from attacking Australia

89 World War II

90  Turning Point in Pacific Japanese failed to surprise Americans 4 Japanese aircraft carriers sunk One American aircraft carrier sunk Japan never again went on the offensive

91 World War II

92  U.S. took over crucial Japanese controlled islands Cut off supplies to Japan Made it possible for strategic bombings of Japan

93 WWII

94  Germany needed Russian oil-fields on other side of Stalingrad  Sept – Jan House-to-house and hand-to-hand combat Few supplies for both sides Harsh winter

95  90,000 Germans surrendered  German casualties: 330,000  Soviet casualties: 1.1 million+  Turning point in Russia

96 WWII

97  1940: Britain and Italy clashed in Libya and Egypt  Feb. 1941: Hitler sent General Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) to secure Libya  Look at map on page 601.

98  Battle of El Alamein: Egypt Desert Fox v. British General Bernard Montgomery British win and push Rommel into Tunisia Turning Point in Africa

99  Operation Torch: Allied troops landed at Morocco and Algeria  Feb. 1943: Americans defeated at Kasserine Pass  After George Patton was promoted, the Allies surrounded Germans

100  240,000 surrendered  Rommel recalled to Europe  End of major battles in Africa

101 WWII

102  Allied bombers heavily bombed German industries and cities Railway lines Aircraft factories Ball-bearing plants Bridges  Ex. In Hamburg, 4 straight Allied bombing raids killed over 40,000 civilians

103 WWII

104  1943: Patton invaded Sicily  Mussolini arrested by his own Fascist party  U.S. forces march on Rome  Italy’s new gov’t surrendered

105  Germans rescued Mussolini and took over north Italy  Germans in Italy did not surrender until 1945  Mussolini was shot and killed by Italians as he tried to flee the country

106 World War II

107  Oct. 1944: MacArthur and a force of 160,000 soldiers invaded the Philippines  Allies did not gain control until June 1945

108 WWII

109  General Dwight D. Eisenhower was assigned Supreme Commander of Allied Forces  Planned invasion of France

110  June 6, 1944: 4,600 invasion craft/warships crossed the English Channel  23,000 airborne soldiers parachuted behind enemy lines

111  150,000 troops stormed the beaches of Normandy, France Massive casualties Eventually took control of the beaches and began to march across France

112 World War II

113  Desperate attack by Hitler in Dec Pushed through Allied lines (formed a bulge) Germans defeated when Patton’s forces arrived Over 600,000 American soldiers involved 80,000 American casualties 100,000 German casualties  Last major German offensive

114 World War II

115  Big Three (FDR, Stalin, and Churchill) met in Yalta (a USSR city) to decide the fate of post-war Germany  Decided to divide Germany and its capital, Berlin.

116 World War II

117  April 1945: American and Soviet forces surrounded Berlin  April 25, 1945: Hitler commits suicide  May 8, 1945: German forces surrender  Known as V-E Day (Victory in Europe)

118 WWII

119  Last two islands before the Japanese mainland  Multiple casualties on both sides  Resistance lasted until June 1945

120 World War II

121  April 1945: President Roosevelt suddenly died and VP Harry S. Truman became President  Truman met with Stalin and new British PM Clement Attlee at Potsdam (part of Berlin) to finalize plans for Japan

122  Truman was informed of the Manhattan Project (secret project to build an atomic bomb) and that the bomb had been completed  Truman told Stalin he had a new, devastating weapon and Stalin simply nodded. Stalin’s spies had already informed him.

123  After the bomb was completed, Truman ordered its use  August 6, 1945: the Enola Gay dropped one on Hiroshima c.80,000 died and many more injured by fire, radiation sickness, etc.

124  August 9, 1945: another bomb dropped on Nagasaki  August 14, 1945: Japan surrendered (V-J Day)

125 WWII

126  Bracero Program: Shortage of farmers in U.S. during war Agreement between U.S. and Mexico U.S. brought in 200,000 Mexican farm laborers

127  1942: All Japanese-Americans on the west coast sent to concentration camps 110,000 civilians Most lost their business, farms, homes, etc.

128  Women: Filled in many vacant jobs Eventually made up 35 percent of the workforce Songs and posters used to encourage women to join  Rosie the Riveter (most popular)

129 WWII

130  10 million total deaths  6 million Jewish deaths

131 WWII

132  Nuremberg, France: Many prominent Nazi leaders placed on trial due to Holocaust and other atrocities  Known as Nuremberg Trials 24 Nazi defendants 12 sentenced to death Established principle that individuals were responsible for their own actions


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