Fascist Party in Germany The Nazi Party was the German fascist party. Glorified violence, war, and strict discipline. Very well organized. – Nazi party rallies in every town. – Very effective propaganda Clear hierarchy (chain of command). – Everyone knew their job Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party. SS (Schutzstaffel): Hitler’s Top Men.
Nazi Rise to Power Treaty of Versailles German war debts Loss of German colonies Wish for Revenge Strong NAZI Leadership Use of Terror and Force Idea of a super race Shift of blame to minority groups = SCAPEGOAT Weak Government Doubts about Weimar Republic Quarrels among political Groups Wish to return to a strong leader, like the Kaiser Economic Problems Inflation Worldwide depression Unemployment
Hitler’s Goals Destroy his opponents in Germany and Treaty of Versailles. Make Germany the strongest country in Europe and create a new Empire (Third Reich). – Wanted to expand Germany’s borders – Germans needed Lebensraum (living space) “Purify” Germany (and later, Europe) of all “racial enemies”. – Believed Germans were “Master Race” - Aryans
Public Support for Hitler Great Depression and Inflation made German money worthless. Hitler was a WWI hero who talked about bringing glory back to the “Fatherland” He promised to get rid of the Communist threat. Blamed Jews for Germany’s problems, especially Treaty of Versailles. SCAPEGOATS – When someone is blamed for something that is not their fault Hitler was an excellent public speaker.
Born 1889 He was a vegetarian, and an animal lover Fought in WWI (1914-1918) Tried to be an artist 1920-1932: builds power of the Nazi Party 1923: tries to overthrow government, ends up in prison. 1932: Appointed Chancellor (Prime Minister) of Germany 1933: Has complete control of Parliament. Becomes absolute ruler (dictator). Hitler Trivia
Getting Into Power The “Brownshirts” or SA (Stormtroopers) SA was used to put down opposition parties Threatened and beat up Jews and anti-Nazi voters Hitler was LEGALLY appointed Chancellor! He quickly makes himself a dictator, and gives himself the title The Fuhrer (The Leader).
Why people liked Hitler *Strong Leadership. *Powerful & Convincing Public Speaker. *Gave the impression that he could solve all of Germany’s Problems. How was Hitler able to come out on top? *Political opposition was weak and disorganized. *Hitler eventually eliminated all political opposition. Things people didn’t like about Hitler *Ruled by Fear & Force *Gestapo: Nazi secret police. *Kept secret files on everyone and hunted down opponents of Nazi Rule. *Ruled streets with violence, terror, and fear. HITLER IS DICTATOR
Hitler in Power Germany’s economy was improving, and people were happy Hitler had no political opposition Began rearming German Army for expansion of the Reich The German Army was called the Wehrmacht Made military swear allegiance to HIM, not to Germany – Why would he do this? Adolf Hitler is Victory
Dictator In 1933, all parties were outlawed except the Nazi party People’s civil rights were suspended – This was a slow, step-by- step process. Gestapo – German secret police One People, One Empire, One Leader
If only 34 % of Germans voted for Hitler, why did he seem so popular?
Kristallnacht November 9-10, 1938 “Night of broken glass” Jewish businesses throughout Germany and Austria destroyed. Thousands of Jews beaten and killed. More and more restrictions placed on Jews: – Curfews, business restrictions, ID badges required. – Many sent to concentration camps – Nuremberg Laws, 1934-1935
Nazi outside a Jewish- owned shop with message to encourage Germans to boycott the store.
Life in the Third Reich Rights were taken away so slowly, by the time people realized what was happening, Hitler was firmly in power. You either supported Hitler, or you were dead!
Otto Bauer Otto Bauer was a 56 year old business man. In June 1942 he was on a train when he said that Germans only had two alternatives: to kill Hitler or be killed by him. He was overheard by a married couple who reported him. He was beheaded on September 16, 1943 for causing discontent and unrest.
Erich Deibel On August 29, 1940 he drew a Communist symbol on the wall of a bathroom in his factory, adding the words, “Hail Freedom!” and “Workers! Help Russia! Strike! Up with the Communist Party!”. Accused of sabotage and treason, he was executed on August 15, 1942