Presentation on theme: "“All Men Are Created Equal”"— Presentation transcript:
1“All Men Are Created Equal” Civil Rights“All Men Are Created Equal”
2Results of the Civil War 13th AmendmentBans Slavery14th AmendmentCitizenship for former slaves“Equal Protection under the Law”15th Amendment – 1870Right to Vote regardless of raceReconstruction –Union troops enforce laws in the South
3Segregation 1877 Reconstruction ends Southern whites regained powerSegregation laws required the separation of the racesJim Crow lawsBlack CodesEvery aspect of life was segregatedDiscrimination and racism existed in the North as wellIn the South it was the LAW
4Segregation Banned interracial marriage Segregated Schools Hospitals LibrariesRestaurantsTheatersBeachesRestroomsDrinking FountainsEtc
5Ku Klux Klan American Terrorist Group Killed thousands of Americans 1865 formed by Confederate Vets6 men in Pulaski, TN, secret club“The Circle Club”“kuklos” – Greek for circle“Grand Cyclops”, “Grand Magi”, (Wizard), etc.Wore sheets and rode around town on their horsesBegan racial intimidation after adding more members
6Ku Klux Klan Resistance to Reconstruction 1867 – Nathan Bedford ForrestImperial WizardUntil WW IKKK is primarily in the SouthAfter WW I membership increases to 5 MillionAnti-immigrant, anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic, etc.Large numbers in Ohio, Indiana, IllinoisScandals in late 20’s, lose members
7Ku Klux Klan By 1930’s back to the South After WW II – Civil Rights Increase in violenceTodayPortrays itself as a religious organizationless than 10,000 official membersAligned with neo-Nazi and other supremacist groupsActively uses the internet to recruitAnti-Government
8Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Homer Plessy – 1/8th black Planned act of Civil DisobedienceChallenge Louisiana Lawsegregated railroad carsLaw upheld by Louisiana courtAppealed ruling to US Supreme Court14th AmendmentAppeal based on “Equal Protection Clause”
9Plessy v Ferguson US Supreme Court upheld law 7-1 “Separate but Equal” will be the law for next 50+ yrs
10Famous Black Americans Louis ArmstrongJoe LouisJesse Owens
13Jackie Robinson Grew up in Pasadena, CA Older brother Mack won silver medal at 1936 OlympicsUCLA Star AthleteBaseball, Football, Basketball, TrackCourt -Martialedfor refusing to move to the back of the bus at Fort Hood1945 Signs with Dodgers, plays in minors1947 Brooklyn Dodger 2B
14Jackie Robinson Opposition Befriended by SS Pee Wee Reese Mutiny from some teammatesSt. Louis threatened to strikeRacial insults from players, fans, etc.Befriended by SS Pee Wee Reese1947 Rookie of the Year1949 MVP, All Star1947, 1949, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956 World SeriesTraded to Giants in 1956 – retiredHall of Fame 1962, died at 53
15After Jackie Robinson 1946 Dodgers sign Roy Campanella, Don Newcombe 1947 Indians Bill Veeck signs Larry Doby1st black player in American League1948 Indians sign Satchel Paige42 yr old RookieWin World Series1965 KC A’s –59 yrs oldPitched 3 shutout innings1948 Truman integrates themilitary
16Early Civil Rights Leaders Booker T. WashingtonEducation would lead to equalityTuskeegee InstituteGeorge Washington CarverW.E.B. DuBoisNAACPChanging laws will lead to equalityWhich path is the right one?
17NAACPNational Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded in 1909W.E.B. DuBois among the foundersDedicated to equal rightsTacticsProtestsLawsuitsLooking for a case to overturn Plessy v Ferguson
18Brown v Board of Education NAACP brings caseSupreme Court combined 5 casesBrown Case (Kansas) 1951Linda Brown, 3rd GradeCouldn’t go to school closest her house because it was for whites onlyBriggs v Elliot (SC) 1951Started over a bus in Clarendon CountyResulted in challenge to segregated schools
19Doll Experiments Kenneth and Mamie Clark, psychologists Used Doll Experiments to prove segregation hurt kids
20Brown v Board of Education SC lawyer John W. Davis1924 Dem Presidential CandidateCongressman, AmbassadorArgued 140 cases before Supreme CourtNAACP lawyer Thurgood MarshallWon 29 of 32 Supreme Court Cases1967 Appointed to Supreme Court
21Brown v Board of Education 1952 Case argued before Court1953 Chief Justice Fred Vinson DiesEisenhower appoints replacementAppoints Earl WarrenCaseArguedAgain!
22Brown v Board of Ed Chief Justice Earl Warren Governor of California Helped Ike win electionSupported relocation ofJapanese-AmericansIke thought he supported SegregationOne of Greatest Judges in US HistoryMiranda v Arizona, Gideon v Wainwright, Loving v VAIke called appointment“The biggest damn fool mistake I ever made”
23Ruling1954 Warren convinces justices that it is time for Court to do the right thingRules 9-0 that segregation was unconstitutional“Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does...”
24Brown Ruling“We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.”
25Results Virginia closed all public schools Violent Opposition to integration throughout SouthBrown ruling will have to be enforced by force
26Emmitt Till 1955 14 yr old from Illinois Murdered in Mississippi He flirted with a white womanBeaten, shot in head, mutilated and dumped in a river2 white men arrestedAll male/white jury1 hr Not Guilty
27Emmitt Till Mother insisted on open casket Photo published Key event in Civil Rights Movementfor Black NorthernersSegregation doesn’t just hurt African Americans living in the South, anyone can be a victim
28Montgomery, AL Dexter Avenue Baptist Church First Baptist Church Rev. Vernon JohnsRev. Martin Luther King, JrFirst Baptist ChurchRev. Ralph AbernathyMontgomery NAACPPresident - E.D. NixonSecretary – Rosa ParksNAACP wanted a case to testthe segregated bus law
29Montgomery Bus Boycott Civil Disobedience – refuse to give up your seatMarch 1955 Claudette ColvinArrested15 yr old unwed teenage motherDec 1955 Rosa Parks42 yr old Department store clerkNAACP secretaryWhat’s the difference?3 Days after her arrest the Bus Boycott begins
30Montgomery Bus Boycott Organized by King, Abernathy, Nixon, etc.Demand end to segregated busesBlack citizens boycott the busesHow did they get to work?White Citizens CouncilOrganized against themViolence and arrestsKing, Abernathy and Nixon’s houses bombedKing arrested for drunk walking4 churches firebombed
31Montgomery Bus Boycott Boycott lasts over 1 yrBus company on verge of bankruptcyUS Supreme Court ruled inNov 1956 that segregated localbuses are unconstitutionalMontgomery changes thelaw in DecemberDec 21, 1956 Rosa Parks ridesthe bus and sits wherever shewants!
32Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta Father – Martin Luther King, Sr.Minister of EbenezerMother – Alberta KingHer father was minister of Ebenezer before her husbandMLK Jr. was minister thereShe was murdered there in 1974Why did churches play a key role in Civil RightsWhy were most of the leaders ministers?
33Dr. MLK Jr. 1929-1968 Education – DR. KING 1948 Morehouse College Bachelors degree at 19Started at 15 yrs old,1951 Crozier SeminaryDivinity degree1953 Married Coretta Scott1954 Pastor of Dexter Avenue at age 251955 Boston College – Doctorate degree
34Dr. MLK Jr. 1929-1968 Beliefs Civil Disobedience Pacifist 1849 Henry David ThoreauPacifistReligious upbringingMohandas GandhiBelieved Equality could be achieved in America
35SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference Founded after Bus Boycott by King, Abernathy, etc.Involved in major Civil Rights eventsOrganized March on Washington 1963Led by King until 1968Abernathy took overMLK IIIToday Bernice King
37Little Rock, Arkansas 1957 - Local School Board decides to integrate 9 Black students chosen to integrate Central HighErnest Green the only seniorThey are known as the “Little Rock 9”
38Little Rock 9 1st Day of School – Angry crowd surrounds school Many from out of stateThreaten to lynch studentsPolice safely get students out
39Little Rock 9 Governor Orval Faubus President Eisenhower Opposed to integrationOrders the National Guard tokeep students out of schoolPresident EisenhowerOrdered Faubus to uphold the SC rulingFaubus pulled out Guard leaving no security
40Little Rock 9 Eisenhower federalized the entire Arkansas Natl Guard Ike sent in the 101st AirborneIf Eisenhower opposed Brown, why did he enforce it?
41Little Rock 9 101st guarded students the whole year Minnijean Brown expelled“1 down, 8 to go”America watched on TVErnest Green graduatedWorked for President CarterLittle Rock’s high schools closed the next yearThe “Little Rock 9” attended Pres. Obama’s inauguration in 2009
42Ruby Bridges1960- New Orleans – NAACP recruits families to integrate elementary schools6 children selected1 showed upRuby Bridges – 6 yrs old
43Ruby Bridges Parents withdrew all the white children from her class Only 1 teacher was willing to teach herBarbara Henry from BostonRuby sat in a class all by herselfAte lunch in the classroom by herselfAll year long
44Ruby Bridges Everyday US Marshals walked her into the school Protesters had a black doll in a coffinOne woman showed up everyday and threatened to poison herHer father was fired from his jobHer grandparents were evictedShe now volunteers at the school
45JFK –The New President Election of 1960 Nixon JFK John F. Kennedy – DemocratRichard Nixon – RepublicansNixonEisenhower sent troops to Little RockNixon was Ike’s VPJackie Robinson endorsed himJFKSupported Civil RightsGot Dr. King out of jail
46James Meredith 1962 James Meredith admitted to University of Miss. Because of NAACP lawsuit“Ole Miss”Blocked by Governor Ross Barnett“No school in our state will be integratedwhile I am your Governor”Robert Kennedy – Attorney GeneralOrders US Marshals to protect Meredith28 Marshals woundedJFK order in US Army, 40+ wounded
47James Meredith Soldiers will guard him at the college Graduated in 1963Shot in 1967 during a Civil Rights marchLater worked for SenatorJesse HelmsA RacistOpposed MLK holiday????
48“Stand in the School House Door” 1963 University of AlabamaGovernor George WallaceBlocks door to prevent the admission of 2 studentsPromises ““Segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever“JFK nationalizes Alabama National GuardWallace ordered to move by Nicholas KatzenbachMoved when ordered by General
50George WallaceWallace will become the most famous segregationist in the countryRuns for President 1964, 68, 72, 761968 runs for President as IndependentWins 13.5% of voteWins 5 states, 46 Electoral votes12% in OhioShot while running in 1972Paralyzed but lived
51Lunch Counter Sit-ins Feb 1960 4 students stage Greensboro, NC sit-in Woolworth’s lunch counter wouldn’t serve blacks4 days later 300 studentsNon-violentNext week sit-ins spread throughout stateBy end of year 70,000 students participating throughout the southSome sit-ins resulted in violenceMany stores ended their segregated policiesAfrican nations gain independence
52Younger Civil Rights Groups SNCC - Student Non-Violent Coordinating CommitteeYounger, wanted change NOW“Jail Not Bail”Marion Barry, Bob MosesLunch counter sit-ins Nashville, TNBeatings and arrestsTV NewsCORE – Congress of Racial EqualityJames FarmerTaught non-violence
53Freedom Rides Dec. 1960 Supreme Court integrates buses, terminals Jan JFK takes officeFreedom RidesPlan for white and black riders to travel south on busesSit integratedGo to wrong waiting roomsSNCC and COREJohn Lewis
54Freedom Rides Anniston, AL Birmingham, AL Bus burnedRiders beatenBirmingham, ALRiders beaten by KKKGovernor promised RFK protection for busesIn Montgomery, riders beaten and arrestedRFK sends in Federal MarshalsRiders arrested again in MississippiMiss. Senator broke deal with RFK
55Birmingham "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere" Campaign against segregation led by MLKProtestsBoycottsSit-insBull Connor - Police ChiefArrest MLK, Abernathy, etc.Letter from a Birmingham jail"Injustice anywhere is athreat to justice everywhere"
56Birmingham Children Protest Dogs, fire hoses Arrest thousands Fill jails“Jail Not Bail”May 1963 Businesses give in to demandsSept St. Church bombedKKK planted 22 sticks of dynamite4 girls killed2 bombers convicted in 2001, 2002
57Civil Rights Act June 1963 Civil Rights Act proposed by JFK Televised SpeechIn response to Birmingham1 law to end all segregationMedgar Evers – NAACP MississippiMurdered the night of JFK speechMurderer finally punished in 1994
58March On Washington Aug 1963 – 250,000 attend – Lincoln Memorial SCLC, NAACP, CORE, SNCC, etcCrowd mix of races/religionsNation of Islam securitySpeakers, Singers, etcDr. King – “I have a Dream”1964 Nobel Peace PrizeNov 22, 1963 JFK killed
59Voting Discrimination 15th Amendment – 1870 – Grants voting rights regardless of raceSouth used various tactics to deny the right to votePoll Taxes (outlawed by 24th Amendment Jan 1964)Grandfather clauseLiteracy TestsFeb 4, 2010 Former Congressman Tom Tancredo at the “Tea Party Convention” said that Obama was elected because“we do not have a civics, literacy test before people can vote in this country.”
60Freedom Summer Summer 1964 Mississippi COFO and SNCC Volunteers Goal was to register black votersCOFO and SNCCVolunteersNorthern College students90% white, many JewishTraining at Miami UniversityVoter Education ProjectWorkshops to teach literacy, registration
61Murder in Mississippi KKK burned 37 churches Over 1000 arrests 3 Civil Rights workers missing June 21, 1964James ChaneyMickey SchwernerAndrew GoodmanBiggest FBIinvestigation in historyBodies found 6 weeks later near Philadelphia, Miss
62Civil Rights Act of 1964 Supported by LBJ (President Johnson) Nov. 27, 1963 (5 days after JFK’s assassination) LBJ said to a joint session of Congress“No memorial oration or eulogy could more eloquently honor President Kennedy's memory than the earliest possible passage of the civil rights bill for which he fought so long.“Passed HouseFilibustered for 54 days in Senate, Passed 73-27
63Civil Rights Act of 1964 Signed July 2, 1964 by LBJ (188 yrs after Declaring Independence )Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin in:Public AccommodationsGovernment and schoolsVoter RegistrationCreates EEOC – Equal Employment Opportunity ComBasis of all anti-discrimination laws that follow
64Selma, AL 1965 Protests for Voting Rights March 7, 1965 – “Bloody Sunday”Planned march from Selma to Montgomery600 protestors beaten by police and state troopers as the cross the Edmund Pettis BridgeDr. King and 2500 march 2 days later (only across bridge)White Minister murdered later that day
65Selma to Montgomery March March 15, 1965 LBJ proposes the Voting Rights ActMarch 21, 300 Civil Rights leaders/celebrities marchGuarded by nearly 4,000 soldiers25,000 join them in Montgomery at the State CapitolViola Luizzo (Detroit) murdered by KKK along road later that night
66Voting Rights Act of 1965Proposed after the murders in Mississippi and SelmaOutlawed literacy testsGave federal government power to monitor and enforce voting rights in areas with a history of voting discriminationFilibustered in SenateSigned Aug 6, 1965
67Legacy of Civil Rights What’s the legacy of Civil Rights? How would your life be different without it?