Presentation on theme: "“All Men Are Created Equal”. 13 th Amendment - 1865 Bans Slavery 14 th Amendment - 1868 Citizenship for former slaves “Equal Protection under the Law”"— Presentation transcript:
“All Men Are Created Equal”
13 th Amendment Bans Slavery 14 th Amendment Citizenship for former slaves “Equal Protection under the Law” 15 th Amendment – 1870 Right to Vote regardless of race Reconstruction – Union troops enforce laws in the South
1877 Reconstruction ends Southern whites regained power Segregation laws required the separation of the races Jim Crow laws Black Codes Every aspect of life was segregated Discrimination and racism existed in the North as well In the South it was the LAW
American Terrorist Group Killed thousands of Americans 1865 formed by Confederate Vets 6 men in Pulaski, TN, secret club “The Circle Club” “kuklos” – Greek for circle “Grand Cyclops”, “Grand Magi”, (Wizard), etc. Wore sheets and rode around town on their horses Began racial intimidation after adding more members
Resistance to Reconstruction 1867 – Nathan Bedford Forrest Imperial Wizard Until WW I KKK is primarily in the South After WW I membership increases to 5 Million Anti-immigrant, anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic, etc. Large numbers in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois Scandals in late 20’s, lose members
By 1930’s back to the South After WW II – Civil Rights Increase in violence Today Portrays itself as a religious organization less than 10,000 official members Aligned with neo-Nazi and other supremacist groups Actively uses the internet to recruit Anti-Government
Homer Plessy – 1/8 th black Planned act of Civil Disobedience Challenge Louisiana Law segregated railroad cars Law upheld by Louisiana court Appealed ruling to US Supreme Court 14 th Amendment Appeal based on “Equal Protection Clause”
US Supreme Court upheld law 7-1 “Separate but Equal” will be the law for next 50+ yrs
Louis Armstrong Joe Louis Jesse Owens
Negro Leagues Judge Kennesaw “Mountain” Landis 1 st MLB Commissioner Established “Color Barrier” Teams - Homestead Grays, Cleveland Buckeyes, Kansas City Monarchs Famous Players “Cool Papa” Bell, Josh Gibson, Satchel Paige Hank Aaron, Willie Mays, Ernie Banks
Branch Rickey Owned Brooklyn Dodgers Determined to integrate MLB Scouts identify 3 players Roy Campanella, Don Newcombe, Jackie Robinson Aug 1945 – Rickey signs Robinson
Grew up in Pasadena, CA Older brother Mack won silver medal at 1936 Olympics UCLA Star Athlete Baseball, Football, Basketball, Track Court -Martialed for refusing to move to the back of the bus at Fort Hood 1945 Signs with Dodgers, plays in minors 1947 Brooklyn Dodger 2B
Opposition Mutiny from some teammates St. Louis threatened to strike Racial insults from players, fans, etc. Befriended by SS Pee Wee Reese 1947 Rookie of the Year 1949 MVP, All Star 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953, 1955, 1956 World Series Traded to Giants in 1956 – retired Hall of Fame 1962, died at 53
1946 Dodgers sign Roy Campanella, Don Newcombe 1947 Indians Bill Veeck signs Larry Doby 1 st black player in American League 1948 Indians sign Satchel Paige 42 yr old Rookie Win World Series 1965 KC A’s –59 yrs old Pitched 3 shutout innings 1948 Truman integrates the military
Booker T. Washington Education would lead to equality Tuskeegee Institute George Washington Carver W.E.B. DuBois NAACP Changing laws will lead to equality Which path is the right one?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People founded in 1909 W.E.B. DuBois among the founders Dedicated to equal rights Tactics Protests Lawsuits Looking for a case to overturn Plessy v Ferguson
NAACP brings case Supreme Court combined 5 cases Brown Case (Kansas) 1951 Linda Brown, 3 rd Grade Couldn’t go to school closest her house because it was for whites only Briggs v Elliot (SC) 1951 Started over a bus in Clarendon County Resulted in challenge to segregated schools
Kenneth and Mamie Clark, psychologists Used Doll Experiments to prove segregation hurt kids
SC lawyer John W. Davis 1924 Dem Presidential Candidate Congressman, Ambassador Argued 140 cases before Supreme Court NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall Won 29 of 32 Supreme Court Cases 1967 Appointed to Supreme Court
1952 Case argued before Court 1953 Chief Justice Fred Vinson Dies Eisenhower appoints replacement Appoints Earl Warren Case Argued Again!
Chief Justice Earl Warren Governor of California Helped Ike win election Supported relocation of Japanese-Americans Ike thought he supported Segregation One of Greatest Judges in US History Miranda v Arizona, Gideon v Wainwright, Loving v VA Ike called appointment “The biggest damn fool mistake I ever made”
1954 Warren convinces justices that it is time for Court to do the right thing Rules 9-0 that segregation was unconstitutional “Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe that it does...”
“We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. Therefore, we hold that the plaintiffs and others similarly situated for whom the actions have been brought are, by reason of the segregation complained of, deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.”
Virginia closed all public schools Violent Opposition to integration throughout South Brown ruling will have to be enforced by force
yr old from Illinois Murdered in Mississippi He flirted with a white woman Beaten, shot in head, mutilated and dumped in a river 2 white men arrested All male/white jury 1 hr Not Guilty
Mother insisted on open casket Photo published Key event in Civil Rights Movement for Black Northerners Segregation doesn’t just hurt African Americans living in the South, anyone can be a victim
Dexter Avenue Baptist Church Rev. Vernon Johns Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr First Baptist Church Rev. Ralph Abernathy Montgomery NAACP President - E.D. Nixon Secretary – Rosa Parks NAACP wanted a case to test the segregated bus law
Civil Disobedience – refuse to give up your seat March 1955 Claudette Colvin Arrested 15 yr old unwed teenage mother Dec 1955 Rosa Parks Arrested 42 yr old Department store clerk NAACP secretary What’s the difference? 3 Days after her arrest the Bus Boycott begins
Organized by King, Abernathy, Nixon, etc. Demand end to segregated buses Black citizens boycott the buses How did they get to work? White Citizens Council Organized against them Violence and arrests King, Abernathy and Nixon’s houses bombed King arrested for drunk walking 4 churches firebombed
Boycott lasts over 1 yr Bus company on verge of bankruptcy US Supreme Court ruled in Nov 1956 that segregated local buses are unconstitutional Montgomery changes the law in December Dec 21, 1956 Rosa Parks rides the bus and sits wherever she wants!
Father – Martin Luther King, Sr. Minister of Ebenezer Mother – Alberta King Her father was minister of Ebenezer before her husband MLK Jr. was minister there She was murdered there in 1974 Why did churches play a key role in Civil Rights Why were most of the leaders ministers?
Education – DR. KING 1948 Morehouse College Bachelors degree at 19 Started at 15 yrs old, 1951 Crozier Seminary Divinity degree 1953 Married Coretta Scott 1954 Pastor of Dexter Avenue at age Boston College – Doctorate degree
Beliefs Civil Disobedience 1849 Henry David Thoreau Pacifist Religious upbringing Mohandas Gandhi Believed Equality could be achieved in America
Southern Christian Leadership Conference Founded after Bus Boycott by King, Abernathy, etc. Involved in major Civil Rights events Organized March on Washington 1963 Led by King until 1968 Abernathy took over MLK III Today Bernice King
Local School Board decides to integrate 9 Black students chosen to integrate Central High Ernest Green the only senior They are known as the “Little Rock 9”
1 st Day of School – Angry crowd surrounds school Many from out of state Threaten to lynch students Police safely get students out
Governor Orval Faubus Opposed to integration Orders the National Guard to keep students out of school President Eisenhower Ordered Faubus to uphold the SC ruling Faubus pulled out Guard leaving no security
Eisenhower federalized the entire Arkansas Natl Guard Ike sent in the 101 st Airborne If Eisenhower opposed Brown, why did he enforce it?
101 st guarded students the whole year Minnijean Brown expelled “1 down, 8 to go” America watched on TV Ernest Green graduated Worked for President Carter Little Rock’s high schools closed the next year The “Little Rock 9” attended Pres. Obama’s inauguration in 2009
1960- New Orleans – NAACP recruits families to integrate elementary schools 6 children selected 1 showed up Ruby Bridges – 6 yrs old
Parents withdrew all the white children from her class Only 1 teacher was willing to teach her Barbara Henry from Boston Ruby sat in a class all by herself Ate lunch in the classroom by herself All year long
Everyday US Marshals walked her into the school Protesters had a black doll in a coffin One woman showed up everyday and threatened to poison her Her father was fired from his job Her grandparents were evicted She now volunteers at the school
Election of 1960 John F. Kennedy – Democrat Richard Nixon – Republicans Nixon Eisenhower sent troops to Little Rock Nixon was Ike’s VP Jackie Robinson endorsed him JFK Supported Civil Rights Got Dr. King out of jail
1962 James Meredith admitted to University of Miss. Because of NAACP lawsuit “Ole Miss” Blocked by Governor Ross Barnett “No school in our state will be integrated while I am your Governor” Robert Kennedy – Attorney General Orders US Marshals to protect Meredith 28 Marshals wounded JFK order in US Army, 40+ wounded
Soldiers will guard him at the college Graduated in 1963 Shot in 1967 during a Civil Rights march Later worked for Senator Jesse Helms A Racist Opposed MLK holiday ????
1963 University of Alabama Governor George Wallace Blocks door to prevent the admission of 2 students Promises ““Segregation now, segregation tomorrow and segregation forever“ JFK nationalizes Alabama National Guard Wallace ordered to move by Nicholas Katzenbach Moved when ordered by General
Wallace will become the most famous segregationist in the country Runs for President 1964, 68, 72, runs for President as Independent Wins 13.5% of vote Wins 5 states, 46 Electoral votes 12% in Ohio Shot while running in 1972 Paralyzed but lived
Feb students stage Greensboro, NC sit-in Woolworth’s lunch counter wouldn’t serve blacks 4 days later 300 students Non-violent Next week sit-ins spread throughout state By end of year 70,000 students participating throughout the south Some sit-ins resulted in violence Many stores ended their segregated policies African nations gain independence
SNCC - Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee Younger, wanted change NOW “Jail Not Bail” Marion Barry, Bob Moses Lunch counter sit-ins Nashville, TN Beatings and arrests TV News CORE – Congress of Racial Equality James Farmer Taught non-violence
Dec Supreme Court integrates buses, terminals Jan JFK takes office Freedom Rides Plan for white and black riders to travel south on buses Sit integrated Go to wrong waiting rooms SNCC and CORE John Lewis
Anniston, AL Bus burned Riders beaten Birmingham, AL Riders beaten by KKK Governor promised RFK protection for buses In Montgomery, riders beaten and arrested RFK sends in Federal Marshals Riders arrested again in Mississippi Miss. Senator broke deal with RFK
Campaign against segregation led by MLK Protests Boycotts Sit-ins Bull Connor - Police Chief Arrest MLK, Abernathy, etc. Letter from a Birmingham jail "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere"
Children Protest Dogs, fire hoses Arrest thousands Fill jails “Jail Not Bail” May 1963 Businesses give in to demands Sept St. Church bombed KKK planted 22 sticks of dynamite 4 girls killed 2 bombers convicted in 2001, 2002
June 1963 Civil Rights Act proposed by JFK Televised Speech In response to Birmingham 1 law to end all segregation Medgar Evers – NAACP Mississippi Murdered the night of JFK speech Murderer finally punished in 1994
Aug 1963 – 250,000 attend – Lincoln Memorial SCLC, NAACP, CORE, SNCC, etc Crowd mix of races/religions Nation of Islam security Speakers, Singers, etc Dr. King – “I have a Dream” 1964 Nobel Peace Prize Nov 22, 1963 JFK killed
15 th Amendment – 1870 – Grants voting rights regardless of race South used various tactics to deny the right to vote Poll Taxes (outlawed by 24 th Amendment Jan 1964) Grandfather clause Literacy Tests Feb 4, 2010 Former Congressman Tom Tancredo at the “Tea Party Convention” said that Obama was elected because “we do not have a civics, literacy test before people can vote in this country.”
Summer 1964 Mississippi Goal was to register black voters COFO and SNCC Volunteers Northern College students 90% white, many Jewish Training at Miami University Voter Education Project Workshops to teach literacy, registration
KKK burned 37 churches Over 1000 arrests 3 Civil Rights workers missing June 21, 1964 James Chaney Mickey Schwerner Andrew Goodman Biggest FBI investigation in history Bodies found 6 weeks later near Philadelphia, Miss
Supported by LBJ (President Johnson) Nov. 27, 1963 (5 days after JFK’s assassination) LBJ said to a joint session of Congress “No memorial oration or eulogy could more eloquently honor President Kennedy's memory than the earliest possible passage of the civil rights bill for which he fought so long.“ Passed House Filibustered for 54 days in Senate, Passed 73-27
Signed July 2, 1964 by LBJ (188 yrs after Declaring Independence ) Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin in: Public Accommodations Government and schools Voter Registration Creates EEOC – Equal Employment Opportunity Com Basis of all anti-discrimination laws that follow
Protests for Voting Rights March 7, 1965 – “Bloody Sunday” Planned march from Selma to Montgomery 600 protestors beaten by police and state troopers as the cross the Edmund Pettis Bridge Dr. King and 2500 march 2 days later (only across bridge) White Minister murdered later that day
March 15, 1965 LBJ proposes the Voting Rights Act March 21, 300 Civil Rights leaders/celebrities march Guarded by nearly 4,000 soldiers 25,000 join them in Montgomery at the State Capitol Viola Luizzo (Detroit) murdered by KKK along road later that night
Proposed after the murders in Mississippi and Selma Outlawed literacy tests Gave federal government power to monitor and enforce voting rights in areas with a history of voting discrimination Filibustered in Senate Signed Aug 6, 1965
What’s the legacy of Civil Rights? How would your life be different without it?