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REMEMBER: NO CLOGGING DURING QUIZBOWL Spanish repression Riots & protests Growing relig. unrest in Spanish Netherlands Despite disunity, rebels hang.

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Presentation on theme: "REMEMBER: NO CLOGGING DURING QUIZBOWL Spanish repression Riots & protests Growing relig. unrest in Spanish Netherlands Despite disunity, rebels hang."— Presentation transcript:

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2 REMEMBER: NO CLOGGING DURING QUIZBOWL

3 Spanish repression Riots & protests Growing relig. unrest in Spanish Netherlands Despite disunity, rebels hang on thanks to good leadership, seizing sea ports, & unpop. Sp. atrocities Fr. govt. weakens Growing anarchy Growing relig. unrest in Fr. b/w Cath’s & Calvinists Bitter wars aggravated by weak govt., feudal separatism, noble feuds, & foreign intervention Relig. tension b/w Sp. & Eng. Eng. raid Spanish shipping Eng. aids Dutch rebels Philip II of Spain tries to dethrone Eliz. I of Eng. Dutch econ. & naval domin. in 1600s (FC.93) Dutch milit. reforms, econ. power, naval vict’s & raids on Sp. shipping  Indep. in 1648 Basis for Louis XIV’s abs. monarchy in 1600s (FC.95) Calv. leader, Henry of Navarre ends wars & secures throne by turning Catholic Sets stage for 30 Yrs War (FC.88) Saves Protestant cause in W. Eur. & weakens Spain FC.87 THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS (1560-1598) Medieval mentality linking relig. w/social & political issues Catholic Ref. (FC.86) Protestant power grows in 1520s & 1530s as HRE emperor Charles V is hampered by other problems: Divided Ger.  Hard to rule Charles’ empire  Enemies & wars that divert attention from Ger. $ problems  Armies desert Protestant Ref. (FC.84) When Charles is finally able to defeat Protestants, Ger. Cath. princes & France, fearing his growing power, undermine his victory Peace of Augsburg (1555) lets each Ger. prince choose Catholicism or Lutheranism  Many Ger. princes still turn Calvinist  Tensions rise Charles V splits emp. b/w Austrian & Sp. branches  Fervent Cath. Philip II of Spain Calv’s & Anab’s flee & spread relig. to Neth’s & Fr. Sp. Armada launched vs. Eng., Fr., & Neth’s  Beaten by Eng. (1588)

4 FC.88 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-48) Dutch win indep.  Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Fear of Hapsburgs (FC.79) Lower silver prod. from Amer’s  $ shortages in Eur Colder & wetter climate in 1600s  Famine & disease Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Growing war fearsRising milit. budgets CATHOLICS: German Cath’s, Hapsburg Spain, Hapsburg Austria, Poland, & Papacy PROTESTANTS: Ger. Prot’s, Denmark, Dutch, Eng., Sweden, & Cath. Venice & France Two rival camps in Eur., largely but not exclusively defined by religion  Any crisis b/w indiv. members from each camp could  Eur. wide conflict Rising political, economic, military, & religious tensions in Europe Prot. Bohemia rebels vs. Cath. Austria (1618) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power France joins vs. Hapsburgs  War of attrition (1635-48) Sweden joins Protestant side, but is defeated after initial victories (1630-34) Denmark, Dutch, & Eng. join Prot’s but lose vs. Hapsburg Sp. & Aus. (1625-29) Spain, Pope, & Poland help Aust. beat Bohemian rebels (1618-21) Exhausting stalemate  Neither side can win or afford to quit War spreads  More states involved  Must commit more resources Rel. Wars in 1500s (FC.87)

5 FC.88A THE START OF THE THIRTY YEARS WAR (1618-30) Protestant Bohemians replace Ferdinand with Protestant Frederick of Palatinate  European wide war: Ger’s central geog. position  Eur. BOP centers largely around events in Germany German stability largely depends on 7 Imperial electors With 3 Catholic & 3 Protestant electors, swing vote belongs to Bohemian king, Ferdinand of Styria, who is also Hapsburg heir apparent & an ardent Catholic, Spain, Pope, & Bavaria send Austria men & money Poland, stirs up Cossack raids to divert Transylvanian aid to Bohemia Only moral support for Boh. from fellow Protestants Rebels are easily crushed (1618-31)  Prot. lands are confiscated while Jesuits reconvert Bohemia to Catholicism Denmark, fearing growing Hapsburg power, invades Germany to help Protestants in 1625 Bavarian & Imperial forces under Wallenstein easily crush Denmark’s forces by 1629 Austria issues Edict of Restitution (1630) seizing all Protestant lands taken from Catholic Church since 1552 Growing fear of Hapsburgs Spain defeats Anglo-Dutch raid on Cadiz & Fr. tries to block passes on Spanish Rd. b/w Italy & Flanders Despite repeated victories Spain is worn out by 10 yrs. of war while Dutch econ. gets stronger Dutch able to capture Spanish treasure fleet (1629), robbing Spain of money critical to its military effort Sp. must default on its loans Sweden, free after its war vs. Poland, enters war on Protestant side (1630), backed up by French funds, making this a European wide conflict (FC.88B)

6 FC.88B THE THIRTY YEARS WAR: THE WAR OF ATTRITION (1630-48) French Phase (1635-48) Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, enters war in 1630 on Ger. Prot. side (FC.88A) Dutch win indep.  Econ dominance in 1600s (FC.93) Stage set for dominance by Louis XIV’s France (FC.95) Ger. stays divided & weak until unif. in 1871 (FC.121) Aust’s power in Ger. broken  Expands to East (FC.90) Exhausting stalemate  Neither side can win or afford to quit War spreads  More states involved & committing more resources Everyone exhausted  Peace talks begin at Westphalia & Munster (1645) but drag on because: France & Sweden insist on tough demands Using Germany as a battleground to wear down Austria suits France & Sweden Austria, desperate to save what it can, refuses to admit defeat Everyone worn out  Treaties of Westphalia & Munster (1648) Spain is bankrupt & exhausted  No longer a major power Portugal rebels vs Spain w/Dutch & French help Fr. fund Dutch who destr. 2 Sp. fleets at Downs (1639) & off Brazil coast (1640) French drive Spanish from France & invade Catalonia French fund Ger. Prot’s & Swedes who beat Imperialists at Wittstock (1636) France enters war to prevent Hapsburg victory (1635) Sp. army enters war & crushes Swedes at Nordlingen (1634) War w/Russia  Poland can’t help Aus. Swedes win two victories, but Gustavus Adolphus is killed Swedes devastate German Cath. lands Swedish Phase (1635-48)

7 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED

8 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics)

9 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS?

10 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650)

11 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V?

12 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany

13 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT

14 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic)

15 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS?

16 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran)

17 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG?

18 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria)

19 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH?

20 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy)

21 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN?

22 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40

23 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE?

24 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40)

25 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE?

26 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50)

27 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS?

28 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow)

29 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY?

30 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes)

31 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS?

32 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them

33 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS?

34 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths

35 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"?

36 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children

37 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY?

38 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY? Reading & writing letters

39 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY? Reading & writing letters EC: IMPORTANCE OF NUMBERS 7422, 12, 144, & 306?

40 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY? Reading & writing letters EC: IMP. OF NO'S 7422, 12, 144, & 306? # relics, complete bodies, heads, & limbs of saints he had

41 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY? Reading & writing letters EC: IMP. OF NO'S 7422, 12, 144, & 306? # relics, complete bodies, heads, & limbs of saints he had EC: WHAT MADE HIM THINK HE COULD LAUNCH WINTER EXPED'S?

42 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? Charles neglected them but Philip abused them EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? Die 100 deaths EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? He outlived 4 wives and 6 of 9 children EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY? Reading & writing letters EC: IMP. OF NO'S 7422, 12, 144, & 306? # relics, complete bodies, heads, & limbs of saints he had EC: WHAT MADE HIM THINK HE COULD LAUNCH WINTER EXPED'S? His faith in God

43 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE?

44 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger.

45 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER?

46 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16

47 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO?

48 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars”

49 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO?

50 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope”

51 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR?

52 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva

53 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME?

54 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood

55 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME?

56 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head

57 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE?

58 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.)

59 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS?

60 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars

61 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE?

62 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver

63 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST?

64 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin

65 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY?

66 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy

67 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY?

68 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.)

69 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL?

70 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together)

71 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS

72 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out

73 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN?

74 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food

75 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE

76 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots

77 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY?

78 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round

79 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE?

80 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE? (Dutch declaration of independence that would influence Locke's Two Treatises on Government, our own Decl. of Indep. and the French Rev's Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen)

81 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE? (Dutch declaration of independence that would influence Locke's Two Treatises on Government, our own Decl. of Indep. and the French Rev's Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen) EC: DATE?

82 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE? (Dutch declaration of independence that would influence Locke's Two Treatises on Government, our own Decl. of Indep. and the French Rev's Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen) EC: DATE? 1581

83 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE? (Dutch declaration of independence that would influence Locke's Two Treatises on Government, our own Decl. of Indep. and the French Rev's Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen) EC: DATE? (1581) EC: WHO GAVE THE DUTCH MILITARY AID?

84 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? 4-> 16 EC: MOTTO? “Long live the Beggars” EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? “Better the Turk than the Pope” EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? Duke of Alva EC WHAT DID THE DUTCH CALL HIS REGIME? Council of Blood EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? Make an icon bow or cut off its head 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? Sea Beggars EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? Dutch had lost battle upriver EC WHY DID SP. ARMY SACK ANTWERP; WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? 22 mo’s back pay; pray to Virgin EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? Neth’s for being so marshy 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working together) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADERS Open dikes & flood them out EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? To drown out Sp. & sail food EC DIET DURING SIEGE Fish skins, dog meat, boiled roots EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? Trade fair or university; university brought in $ year round 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE? (Dutch declaration of independence that would influence Locke's Two Treatises on Government, our own Decl. of Indep. and the French Rev's Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen) EC: DATE? 1581 EC: WHO GAVE THE DUTCH MILITARY AID? Elizabeth I of England

85 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR?

86 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed

87 EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH?

88 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch

89 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER?

90 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER? Dutch blocked Scheldt R.; Amsterdam

91 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER? Dutch blocked Scheldt R.; Amsterdam EC: WHAT WERE DUTCH RIVERBOATS CALLED?

92 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER? Dutch blocked Scheldt R.; Amsterdam EC: WHAT WERE DUTCH RIVERBOATS CALLED? Flyboats

93 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER? Dutch blocked Scheldt R.; Amsterdam EC: WHAT WERE DUTCH RIVERBOATS CALLED? Flyboats 13) HOW LONG DID THE STRUGGLE LAST? ITS OUTCOME? ALL THE NETH'S?

94 EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? 3B’s: Beef, Beer & Bed EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? Countermarch EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER? Dutch blocked Scheldt R.; Amsterdam EC: WHAT WERE DUTCH RIVERBOATS CALLED? Flyboats 13) HOW LONG DID THE STRUGGLE LAST? ITS OUTCOME? ALL THE NETH'S? 80 yrs (1566-1648);, Dutch indep. for Northern 7 of 17 provinces

95 Video Art Quiz!!

96 NAME THIS BATTLE

97 NAME THIS PAINTING & ITS ARTIST

98 NAME THIS RULER

99 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION

100 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT?

101 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%)

102 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS?

103 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic)

104 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION?

105 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98)

106 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S?

107 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing

108 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE?

109 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil)

110 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS?

111 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference

112 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS?

113 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8

114 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE

115 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general

116 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE?

117 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day

118 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S?

119 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre

120 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE?

121 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s

122 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE?

123 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones

124 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK?

125 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes)

126 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES?

127 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots

128 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED?

129 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED? 1598

130 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED? 1598 EC: HOW DID HENRY IV DIE?

131 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED? 1598 EC: HOW DID HENRY IV DIE? Assassinated by a suicide monk

132 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED? 1598 EC: HOW DID HENRY IV DIE? Assassinated by a suicide monk 19) IMPACT OF THE WARS ON FR. MONARCHY?

133 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders,organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? Hug. singing 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 FACTORS BESIDES RELIG. AGGRAVATING THE WARS? feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference EC: NUMBER OF WARS? 7 or 8 EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE Each side captured other side’s general EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? St. Bartholomew’s Day EC: THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? Henry III, Henry of Guise, Henry of Navarre EC: CATH. PRIESTS’ ADVICE DURING PARIS SIEGE? Better to eat their kids than live under Prot’s EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? Bread from ground up cemetery bones 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? Henry IV gave relig. Freedom to Huguenots EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED? 1598 EC: HOW DID HENRY IV DIE? Assassinated by a suicide monk 19) IMPACT OF THE WARS ON FR. MONARCHY? (People were more willing to submit to the rule of a strong govt.-> absolute monarchy of Louis XIV (1661-1715)

134 Video Art Quiz!!

135 NAME THIS WOMAN

136 NAME THIS MAN

137 WHAT OCCASION DOES THIS PAINTING DEPICT

138 REMEMBER: NO CLOGGING DURING QUIZBOWL

139 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA

140 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT?

141 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ?

142 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana

143 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN?

144 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth)

145 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH?

146 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed

147 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA?

148 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France)

149 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH?

150 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada

151 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN?

152 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers

153 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130?

154 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed

155 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE?

156 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload

157 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's

158 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking

159 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER?

160 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers

161 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND?

162 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder

163 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder 23) CONTRAST ENG. AND SP. NAVAL TACTICS?

164 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder 23) CONTRAST ENG. AND SP. NAVAL TACTICS? Eng. use sailing & guns to sink enemy ships; Sp. board enemy ships

165 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder 23) CONTRAST ENG. AND SP. NAVAL TACTICS? Eng. use sailing & guns to sink enemy ships; Sp. board enemy ships 24) HOW DID EACH SIDE SURPRISE & FRUSTRATE EACH OTHER AT 1ST?

166 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder 23) CONTRAST ENG. AND SP. NAVAL TACTICS? Eng. use sailing & guns to sink enemy ships; Sp. board enemy ships 24) HOW DID EACH SIDE SURPRISE & FRUSTRATE EACH OTHER AT 1ST? (Sp. crescent formation-> Eng. couldn't isolate Sp. ships to sink them; Eng. speed & mobility -> Sp. ships couldn't catch & board Eng. ships)

167 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder 23) CONTRAST ENG. AND SP. NAVAL TACTICS? Eng. use sailing & guns to sink enemy ships; Sp. board enemy ships 24) HOW DID EACH SIDE SURPRISE & FRUSTRATE EACH OTHER AT 1ST? (Sp. crescent formation-> Eng. couldn't isolate Sp. ships to sink them; Eng. speed & mobility -> Sp. ships couldn't catch & board Eng. ships) 25)HOW DID THE ENGLISH FORCE THE ISSUE?

168 ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholicritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? Virgin Queen, Gloriana 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 1st cousin once removed 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? Descended from shipwrecked survivors of Armada EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? Race; shaved off towers EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? Number of Sp. Ships after & before Armada sailed EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? Shorter-> Can reload EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's Expensive-> Little practice; uneven quality of powder; rocking EC: HOW DID ENGLISH & SPANISH CREWS DIFFER? Eng. All sailors; Sp. Sailors & soldiers EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? Storm hid fact that Eng. were out of gunpowder 23) CONTRAST ENG. AND SP. NAVAL TACTICS? Eng. use sailing & guns to sink enemy ships; Sp. board enemy ships 24) HOW DID EACH SIDE SURPRISE & FRUSTRATE EACH OTHER AT 1ST? (Sp. crescent formation-> Eng. couldn't isolate Sp. ships to sink them; Eng. speed & mobility -> Sp. ships couldn't catch & board Eng. ships) 25)HOW DID THE ENGLISH FORCE THE ISSUE? (sent fireships into Calais harbor to drive Spanish fleet out in disorder)

169 Video Art Quiz!!

170 WHAT DOES THIS PAINTING DEPICT?

171 WHY IS THIS SHIP SINKING?

172 Who is this man?

173 What harbor is this?

174 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR

175 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW?

176 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power)

177 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS?

178 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice

179 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM?

180 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war)

181 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK?

182 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up

183 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS?

184 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague

185 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING?

186 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING? (Stalemate from each side committing more resources to war Growing need to recover losses)

187 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING? (Stalemate from each side committing more resources to war Growing need to recover losses) 32) WAR’S 4 PHASES?

188 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING? (Stalemate from each side committing more resources to war Growing need to recover losses) 32) WAR’S 4 PHASES? (1. Bohemian w/Austria, Spain, Pope, & Poland; 2. Danish/Dutch & English; 3. Swedish; 4. French

189 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING? (Stalemate from each side committing more resources to war Growing need to recover losses) 32) WAR’S 4 PHASES? (1. Bohemian w/Austria, Spain, Pope, & Poland; 2. Danish/Dutch & English; 3. Swedish; 4. French 33) PEOPLE FIGURED WAR WOULD START WHEN & WHY?

190 THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING? (Stalemate from each side committing more resources to war Growing need to recover losses) 32) WAR’S 4 PHASES? (1. Bohemian w/Austria, Spain, Pope, & Poland; 2. Danish/Dutch & English; 3. Swedish; 4. French 33) PEOPLE FIGURED WAR WOULD START WHEN & WHY? 1621 when 12-yr.truce b/w Dutch & Sp ended

191 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY?

192 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom)

193 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS?

194 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh.

195 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY?

196 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609

197 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR?

198 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague

199 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS?

200 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall

201 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM?

202 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung

203 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN?

204 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall)

205 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY?

206 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it)

207 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME?

208 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King"

209 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT?

210 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains

211 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY?

212 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng.

213 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION?

214 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X

215 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR?

216 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish)

217 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT?

218 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars)

219 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S?

220 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet (1628)

221 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet (1628) 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT?

222 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes)

223 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND?

224 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist

225 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION?

226 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629

227 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629 EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE?

228 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629 EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE? 2 archb's, 12 bishops, 500 monast's;

229 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629 EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE? 2 archb's, 12 bishops, 500 monast's; 40) WHOM DID THIS BRING IN?

230 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629 EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE? 2 archb's, 12 bishops, 500 monast's; 40) WHOM DID THIS BRING IN? (Sweden)

231 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629 EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE? 2 archb's, 12 bishops, 500 monast's; 40) WHOM DID THIS BRING IN? (Sweden) 41) SWEDEN'S KING & HIS MILIT. INNOVATIONS?

232 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? Granted relig. Freedom to Bohemians in 1609 EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? Defenestration of Prague EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? Survived 60’ fall EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? Cath’s: angels; Prot’s; dung EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? Baths in public fountains EC: JESUIT PLAY? Fred. Getting 100k cheeses from Dutch, 100k herring fr. Denmark, & 100k amb’s fr. Eng. EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? Used local civ’s or had men get counted 2X 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet 1628 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF HIS BACKGROUND? Albrecht von Wallenstein; originally Calvinist EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? Restored all Cath. Lands lost b/w 1555 & 1629 EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE? 2 archb's, 12 bishops, 500 monast's; 40) WHOM DID THIS BRING IN? (Sweden) 41) SWEDEN'S KING & HIS MILIT. INNOVATIONS? (Gustavus Adolphus; use of more field artillery and linear tactics-> more effective firepower)

233 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME?

234 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers

235 EC: SWED. MINISTER?

236 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna

237 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER?

238 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares

239 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK?

240 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement

241 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER

242 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar

243 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW?

244 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather

245 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO?

246 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year)

247 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME?

248 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor

249 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH?

250 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634)

251 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW?

252 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France

253 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES?

254 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother

255 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK?

256 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes

257 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE?

258 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback

259 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST?

260 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus)

261 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON?

262 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground

263 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY?

264 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY? (Dutch; Tr. of Munster)

265 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY? (Dutch; Tr. of Munster) EC: DATE?

266 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY? (Dutch; Tr. of Munster) EC: DATE? 1648

267 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY? (Dutch; Tr. of Munster) EC: DATE? 1648 50) RESULTS OF 30 YEARS WAR?

268 EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? Prime ministers EC: SWED. MINISTER? Axel Oxenstierna EC: SPANISH MINISTER? Cound-duke of Olivares EC: SWEDISH DRINK? Milit. Punishment: forced feeding of mixture of excrement EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER...” Old Beggar EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? Layers of leather 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? Cath. General; Monk in armor 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? When Louis XIII chose Richelieu over his mother 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY? (Dutch; Tr. of Munster) EC: DATE? 1648 50) RESULTS OF 30 YEARS WAR? Germany was wrecked; Spain was wrecked; Austria was Wrecked-> expanded E.; Dutch got indep.; Sweden became Baltic power; France eventually became Big power in Europe

269 Video Art Quiz!!

270 WHO IS THIS MAN?

271 NAME THIS EVENT

272 NAME THIS MAN

273

274 WHO IS THIS WOMAN?

275 NAME THIS MAN

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277 WHAT EVENT DOES THIS DEPICT?

278 RELIGIOUS WARS REVIEW BOWL 1) 3 REASONS WHY RELIGIOUS WARS STARTED (Prot. Ref., Cath. Ref., mentality linking religion & politics) EC: DATES FOR THE AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS? (1560-1650) 2) 3 PROBLEMS PLAGUING CHARLES V? (lack of $-> merc's left; jealous enemies, esp. Fr. & Turks; difficulties ruling fragmented Germany EC: NAME OF THE LEAGUE & WAR HE FOUGHT (Schmalkaldic) 3) TREATY ENDING THE WAR & ITS TERMS? (Augsburg; each prince could choose his own region's religion as long as it was Catholic or Lutheran) 4) EFFECTS OF THE PEACE OF AUGSBURG? (Ger. continued to fragment as many princes adopted Calvinism; Anabaptists & Calvinists fled to Neth's-> revolt there; Charles V abdicated his throne, splitting Hapsburg Empire b/w Philip II (Spain, Neth's, 2 Sicilies, American colonies) & Ferdinand I (HRE & Austria) 5) HOW UNITED WERE THE SPANISH NETH'S? HOW WEALTHY? WHO ELSE COMPARED IN WEALTH? (17 very wealthy semi-autonomous provinces, almost as rich as N. Italy) EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE URBAN? 40 EC: PERCENT OF POPULATION BELIEVED TO BE LITERATE? (40) EC: MAIN PORT? HOW MUCH OF EUROPE'S OUTSIDE TRADE? (Antwerp; 50) EC: PAINTING SHOWING HOW PROSPEROUS ITS AGRICULTURE WAS? (2500 lb. cow) 6) POPULARITY OF CHARLES V'S RULE VS. PHILIP II'S? WHY? (not very; too many taxes) EC SAYING COMPARING HOW CHARLES & PHILIP EACH TREATED THE NETHERLANDS? EC PHILIP WOULD RATHER DO WHAT THAN RULE OVER HERETICS? EC: WHY WAS HE THE SAD KING"? EC: HOW DID HE SPEND MOST OF HIS DAY? EC: IMP. OF NO'S 7422, 12, 144, & 306? EC: WHAT MADE HIM THINK HE COULD LAUNCH WINTER EXPED'S? 7) WHY DID REL. TURMOIL INCREASE IN NETH'S DURING PHILIP'S RULE? (Peace of Augsburg-> his own intolerant rule and influx of religious refugees from Ger. EC NUMBER OF BISHOPS BEFORE & AFTER? EC: MOTTO? EC: ANOTHER MOTTO? EC FIRST SP. CMMDR? (Alva) EC NAME OF HIS COUNCIL? EC: PROT. CHILDREN'S GAME? 8) SUCCESS OF REVOLT AT 1ST? WHY DID IT SURVIVE? (poor; rebels seized ports in N.) EC NAME OF DUTCH RAIDERS? EC: WHAT DID FLOATING HATS INDICATE? EC WHY DID SP. SOLDIERS SACK ANTWERP & WHAT DID THEY DO 1ST? EC: WHAT WAS CALLED THE "BUTTOCK OF EUROPE" & WHY? 9) NETH'S RELIG. GEOGRAPHY TODAY & WHY? (Prot. in N. & Cath. in S. from Prot. refugees running to safety of ports in N.) 10) NAME OF DUTCH LEADER? NICKNAME? WHY? GOOD GENERAL? (William Prince of Orange; "the Silent" for his ability to mask his intentions; mediocre general, but a good solid leader who could keep various Dutch factions working togeher) 11) LAST DESPERATE DUTCH STRATEGY VS. INVADER S(Open dikes & flood them out) EC WHY WERE THEY OPENED DURING THE SIEGE OF LEYDEN? EC DIET DURING SIEGE EC: LEYDEN'S CHOICE OF REWARD & WHY? 12) OATH OF ABJURATION? WHAT WOULD IT INFLUENCE? (Dutch declaration of independence that would influence Locke's Two Treatises on Government, our own Decl. of Indep. and the French Rev's Declaration of Rights of Man & Citizen) EC: DATE? (1581) EC: WHO GAVE THE DUTCH MILITARY AID? EC: WHAT WERE ENGLISH TROOPS AT THIS TIME MAINLY KNOWN FOR? EC WHAT DID MAURICE OF NASSAU COME UP WITH? EC: WHAT HAPPENED TO ANTWERP'S TRADE? WHO TOOK OVER? EC: WHAT WERE DUTCH RIVERBOATS CALLED? 13) HOW LONG DID THE STRUGGLE LAST? ITS OUTCOME? ALL THE NETH'S? 14) years, with the northern provinces winning indep. as Dutch Republic (aka Holland) & the southern provinces remaining under Spanish rule FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION 14) WHAT % OF POP. WAS HUGUENOT? (c.10%) 15) FACTORS HELPING HUGUENOTS? (Concentrated in cities, many nobles for leaders, organized & enthusiastic) EC: DATES FOR THE WARS OF RELIGION? (1562-98) EC: WHAT ESP. TOUCHED OFF BAD REL'S BETW. HUG'S & CATH'S? 16) VICIOUS CYCLE EMBROILING FRANCE? (Weak govt. turmoil) 17) 2 OF THE 3 FACTORS AGGRAVATING THE WARS? (feudal separatism, noble factions, outside interference) EC: NUMBER OF WARS? EC: DESCRIBE 1ST BATTLE EC: MOST FAMOUS MASSACRE? EC: WHO WERE THE 3 HENRY'S IN THE WAR OF THE 3 HENRY'S? EC: WHAT DID CATH. PRIESTS TELL CONGREGATIONS DURING THE SIEGE OF PARIS? EC: PARISIAN DIET DURING SIEGE? 18) HENRY'S SOLUTION? DID IT WORK? (Convert to Catholic. to appease most Fr.; yes) EC: WHAT WAS THE EDICT OF NANTES? EC: WHEN WAS IT ISSUED? EC: HOW DID HENRY IV DIE? 19) IMPACT OF THE WARS ON FR. MONARCHY? (People were more willing to submit to the rule of a strong govt.-> absolute monarchy of Louis XIV (1661-1715) ENGLAND & THE SPANISH ARMADA 20) ELIZABETH'S RELIGIOUS SETTLEMENT? (Mild Protestant theology grafted onto Catholic ritual & organization) EC: 2 OF HER 2 NICKNAMES ? 21) THREE FACTORS-> WAR B/W ENG. & SPAIN? (Eng. raids on Sp. shipping; Eng. support for the Dutch rebellion; Spanish support for Mary Qu. of Scots vs. Elizabeth) EC: MARY QUEEN OF SCOTLAND'S RELATIONSHIP TO ELIZABETH? 22) PHILIP'S GRAND STRATEGY FOR THE ARMADA? (Pick up Army of Flanders in Neth's -> Escort it to Eng. to conquer it-> Return to Neth's & crush Dutch rebellion -> Help crush Huguenots in France) EC: COMMON BELIEF ABOUT DARK HAIRED IRISH? EC: TERM GIVEN TO NEW ENGLISH HULL DESIGN & WHAT DID IT MEAN? EC: HOW DID THE MARY ROSE SINK? EC: NUMBERS 65 AND 130? EC: ENGLISH GUN CARRIAGES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE? EC: 3 PROBLEMS W/GUNNERY IN 1500's EC: HOW DID ENGLISH CREWS DIFFER FROM SPANISH CREWS? EC: HOW DID THE STORM THAT INTERRUPTED THE ENGLISH BEATING OF THE SPANISH ARMADA ACTUALLY SAVE ENGLAND? 23) CONTRAST ENGLISH AND SPANISH NAVAL TACTICS? (Sp: board & take enemy ships; Eng: use cannons to sink enemy ships) 24) HOW DID EACH SIDE SURPRISE & FRUSTRATE EACH OTHER AT 1ST? (Sp. crescent formation-> Eng. couldn't isolate Sp. ships to sink them; Eng. speed & mobility -> Sp. ships couldn't catch & board Eng. ships) 25)HOW DID THE ENGLISH FORCE THE ISSUE? (sent fireships into Calais harbor to drive Spanish fleet out in disorder) THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 26) TWO FACTORS FROM 1500'S-> 30YW? (Religious wars & fear of Hapsburg power) 27) MEMBERS OF THE 2 CAMPS? (Cath: Spain, Aust., Sp. Neth's, Ger. Cath's, pope, Poland; Prot's: Dutch, Sweden, England, Ger. Prot's, Denmark, France, & Venice 28) DANGER OF SUCH A BI-POLAR SYSTEM? (any small conflict could drag everyone from each side in-> big war) 29) ARMS RACE FEEDBACK? (Mutual fear of each other 's buildup each side builds up 30) 2 OTHER FACTORS-> TENSIONS? (decline in Sp. Am. silver prod.; colder climate-> malnourishment-> disease, esp. plague 31) FEEDBACK THAT KEPT 30YW & MODERN WARS IN GEN'L GOING? (Stalemate from each side committing more resources to war Growing need to recover losses) 32) 4 PHASES OF THE WAR? (1. Bohemian w/Austria, Spain, Pope, & Poland; 2. Danish/Dutch & English; 3. Swedish; 4. French 33) PEOPLE FIGURED WAR WOULD START WHEN & WHY? 1621 when truce b/w Spain & Dutch expired 34) WHERE DID IT START & WHY? (Bohemia, when Bohemians rebelled vs. their king, Ferdinand of Styria who had revoked their religious freedom) EC: SITUATION W/THE ELECTORS? 3 Protestant, 3 Cath., King of Boh. EC: LETTER OF MAJESTY? EC:EVENT STARTED THE WAR? EC: FATE OF THE 2 MINISTERS? EC: DEBATE OVER WHAT SAVED THEM? EC: TITLE THE DEFENESTRATED MINISTERS WERE GIVEN? Hohenfall (of the great fall) 35) OUTCOME OF BOHEMIAN WAR & WHY? (Boh. revolt was crushed because it got little real help from other Prot's while Cath. powers ganged up on it) EC: FREDERICK OF THE PALATINATE'S NICKNAME? the "Winter King" EC: FREDERICK'S ECCENTRIC HABIT? EC: JESUIT PLAY? EC: WHAT DID MERC. CAPT'S DO TO PASS INSPECTION? 36) HAPS. VICT.-> WHAT 2 NEW THEATERS OF WAR? (Dutch & Danish) 37) WHAT HAPPENED TO ENG. INVOLVEMENT? (Fizzled out after disastrous raid on Cadiz & Eng. became preoccupied w/its own revolution & civil wars) 38) ANY DUTCH VICT'S? (Capture of Sp. treasure fleet (1628) 39) DANISH PHASE RESULT? Hapsburgs quickly defeated Prot. Danes) EC: HAPS. GEN. & IRONY OF WALLENSTEIN'S BACKGROUND? EC: EDICT OF RESTITUTION? EC: WHAT DID IT RESTORE? 2 archb's, 12 bishops, 500 monast's; 40) WHOM DID THIS BRING IN? (Sweden) 41) SWEDEN'S KING & HIS MILIT. INNOVATIONS? (Gustavus Adolphus; use of more field artillery and linear tactics-> more effective firepower) EC: WHO RAN GOVT'S AT THIS TIME? EC: SWED. MINISTER? EC: SPANISH MINISTER? EC: SWEDISH DRINK? EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "YOUNG SOLDIER..." EC: COMPLETE THIS SAYING: "ONE KING..." EC: WHAT DID X-RAYS OF SWEDISH CANNONS SHOW? EC: MOST LIKELY EXPLANATION FOR HOW GUSTAVUS DIED? 42) HOW WELL DID HE DO? (Big victory at Breitenfeld (1631), but he was killed at Lutzen the next year) EC: WHO WAS TILLY AND WHAT WAS HIS NICKNAME? 43) SWEDISH EFFORT AFTER GUSTAVUS' DEATH? Faltered-> defeat at Nordlingen (1634) 44) WHO CAME IN NOW? France EC: WHAT WAS THE DAY OF THE DUPES? 45) FRANCE'S STRATEGY & DID IT WORK? Fund others: yes 46)WHY NOT MAKE PEACE? entangling alliances-> hard to make separate peace; feedback 47) WHO WAS "WINNING" OR RATHER GETTING HURT THE WORST? (Hapsburg Sp. & Aus) 48) NEGOTIATIONS? WHY DID THEY DRAG ON? Allied demands; Aus. reluctance to give up; neutral battleground 49) FIRST TO MAKE PEACE? NAME OF TREATY? (Dutch; Tr. of Munster) EC: DATE? 1648 50) RESULTS OF 30 YEARS WAR? Spanish power seriously weakened; Austria badly hurt & kicked out of Ger. affairs; Dutch won indep. & became big econ. power; Sweden the main power in the Baltic; France the big power in Europe; Ger. fragmented & weakened


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