2Marriage and Family Defined Family - a group of people related by marriage, blood, or adoption.social institution that unites individuals in cooperative groups that care for members, regulate sexual relationships, and oversee the bearing and raising of childrenFunctionalist perspectiveMost important social institution – Enduring features of social lifeStresses how family is related to other parts of society and how it contributes to the well-being of society
3The Problem in Sociological Perspective Effects of the Industrial Revolution on the familyMen left homeChildren became an economic liabilityFormal educationA lower birthrateFrom rural to urbanLoss of functionsChanges in women’s roles
4The Scope of the Problem ModernitySocial and cultural factors relating to recent times or the presentSo powerful, family isn’t going to be able to adjustDivorceIncreased steadily since 1970Is divorce a sign of weakness or strength?Can interpret divorce statistics in many waysThe children of divorceInvolves other things that cannot be quantifiedCohabitation
5Family Types Nuclear family – wife, father, and children Extended family – nuclear family plus other relatives – like grandparents, cousins, aunts, uncles, etc.Marriage - a legal union based on mutual rights and obligationsMarriage = wedding - culture
6Mate SelectionRomantic Love – idea of people being sexually attracted to one another and idealizing the otherEx. Soul mate2 components:1) Emotional – feeling of sexual attraction2) Cognitive – feeling we describe as being “in love”Homogamy –the tendency to marry someone similar to oneself based on personal preference.Heterogamy – partners are dissimilar with respect to some important social characteristics.Interracial marriage
7New Family FormsMarriage rate – the number of marriages per year for every one thousand members of a population.The U.S. marriage rate has fluctuated since 1940.
9FIGURE 11.1SLIDE 3 – INSERT FIGURE 11.1 ON PAGE 340 OF TEXT
10CohabitationCohabitation – living with someone in a marriage-like arrangement without the legal obligations and responsibilities of formal marriage.While cohabitation is more common among people with less education, it is increasing at higher educational levels.Cohabitation is on the rise. In 2009, cohabitation increased by 13 percent, twice the average annual increase of the preceding few years.Cohabitation has almost doubled since 1990.
11Single-Parent Families have been on the rise since 1970; 23 million children now live in single-parent families (32 percent of all children); 6 times higher than 1940, 3 times higher than 1970, and about double what it was in 198095% of children in single-parent families are in single-mother familiesChildren in single-parent families are without the same economic resources available in two-parent families.Most research indicates that growing up with a single parent negatively affects a child’s well-being.
12Single-Parent Families – Economic Outcomes Children in single-parent homes:exhibit more behavioral problems,have higher teenage pregnancy rates,perform lower academically,score lower on tests of psychological well-being,are less able to adapt in social settings than children living with their biological parents
13Childless Marriages Reasons to remain childless: In the past, there was a stigma attached to marriages without children.In 2008, one in five American women ages 40–44 was childless, up 80 percent since 1970Highest rates among White women, highly educated women.Reasons to remain childless:less stigmaimportance of careersIndependencedo not enjoy childrentoo much delayphysical or mental limitations.
14Same-Sex Domestic Partners Due to the stigma surrounding homosexuality, it is difficult to know exactly what proportion of the American population is gay.Americans have differing views of legalizing same-sex marriage:48% of Americans oppose legalizing gay marriage; 42% favor it.Same-sex partners living together with children—are also increasing in number, although their number is small compared with heterosexual marriages.
15Adult Children Returning Home “Boomerang kids” –young adults (18-34) have a much higher probability of living in their parents’ home than they did 30 years ago.Contributing factors:Young adults are marrying later.More young adults are continuing their education, and live at home while doing so.Due to the high cost of living, young adults return home after completing their education.High divorce rate also increases the proportion of young adults living at home.
16Adult Children Returning Home: Consequences An added financial burden for older parents.Many parents complain that their adult children do not share in expenses, fail to help around the house, invade privacy, and prevent them from developing relationships with spouses and friends.Adult children living at home forfeit some freedom and are subject to some unwanted parental control.
17The Sandwich Generation More middle-aged adults are finding mothers and fathers living with them.Sandwich generation – term applied to those adults caught between caring for their parents and caring for the family they formed after leaving home.Elderly parents receive better care from those who love them and feel responsible for them.Aging parents also offer emotional support and financial resources.Taking care of an elderly parent is not easy, physically or emotionally.The burden of caring for an aging parent falls much more heavily on women.About 2/3 of unpaid caregivers are female.
18DivorceDivorce rate – the number of divorces annually for every thousand members of the population.The nagging dilemma of divorceDecision to divorce is usually painful, preceded by years of dissatisfaction and unhappinessResearch – people who go to college, belong to a religion, wait to get married, and have children have a much better chance of their marriage lasting.Working with co workers of opposite sex and working with people who are recently divorced, increase one’s risk of divorceDivorce and children
20Family ViolenceOver 1/5 of all reported cases of aggravated assault involve domestic violence, however many episodes go unreported.Domestic violence involves children, spouses, siblings, and older people.As many as ½ of married women in the U.S. are victims of spousal violence.At least 4 million women are battered by their husbands annually.4,000 women each year are beaten to death.14% of married women are sexually attacked by their husbands every year.¾ of spousal violence occurs during separation or after divorce.
21Family Violence Alcohol and violence The more people drink, the more likely they are to beat their spouse.The social heredity of violenceChildren learn from their parents that violence is a way to solve problems.
22Family ResiliencyFamily resiliency – refers to the family’s capacity to emerge from crises as stronger and more resourceful.Families that flourish despite distress are resilient.Family friendly policy
23Functionalist Theory of Families - Stresses how family is related to other parts ofsociety and how it contributes to the well-being ofsocietyFunctions of the FamilyEconomic production, socialization of children, care of sick and aged, recreation, sexual control, and reproduction.
24Conflict Theory and Family Draws attention to the struggles of scarce resources:Housework = time, energy, leisure“second shift”False consciousnessFailure to recognize the state of one’s exploitationPower and the marital experienceToday’s women are less dependent on mates.Conflict theorists stress that marriage and family patterns reflect historical struggles between men and women.Examines women’s oppression and how the family has been used to maintain male domination of females.The family perpetuates gender inequality
25Symbolic Interaction and Family An overloaded institutionSymbolic interactionists examine what people expect out of marriageThe love symbol: engulfment into unrealistic expectationsOptional emotions have now become mandatory emotionsChanging Ideas about DivorceChanging ideas about childrenChanging expectations of parentingChanging marital rolesSociety used to expect the husband to assume the role of breadwinnerHow each sex experiences marriage differentlyEx. houseworkRelationships within the family are constantly being redefined.
26Conservatives: Traditional Family Values The family as the core of a societySource of problems stem from a break with traditional familiesRising divorce and cohabitation; gay marriage“Me” generationSolution would be to go back to traditional family values
27Liberals: Many Kinds of Families Support variability in family formPoverty and domestic abuse are the biggest problemsIncrease support to familiesChild CareHigher minimum wagePay women as much as men
28Radicals: Replace the Family Family is related to inequalityFamily is how property is passed on from one generation to the nextFamily is related to perpetuating inequalityPerpetuates inequality based on sexual orientation
29Looking Forward Is the nuclear family deteriorating? Family Decline PerspectiveFamily Change PerspectiveThe nuclear family remains the most popular choice among Americans.
30The Future of the Problem Rapid social change as normativeChange is so rapid and extensive that parents and children live in different worlds.Changes we can expectAge at first marriage will continue upwardCohabitation will continue to increaseMarriage will become even more oriented around companionshipDivorce rate may declineThe ideological struggle