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THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. NAACP Founded in 1910 – W.E.B. Du Bois founder Was interracial – consisted of both African Americans and white Americans Worked.

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Presentation on theme: "THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. NAACP Founded in 1910 – W.E.B. Du Bois founder Was interracial – consisted of both African Americans and white Americans Worked."— Presentation transcript:


2 NAACP Founded in 1910 – W.E.B. Du Bois founder Was interracial – consisted of both African Americans and white Americans Worked together for same goal of equality Major focus was to put an end to lynching Succeeded by getting two anti- lynching bills passed by the House of Representatives -> opposed in the Southern Senate

3 NAACP Major victory in Brown v. Board of Education Their emphasis on legal equality made the NAACP appear out of touch with the more basic issues of economic survival Other organizations emerged National Urban League – assist people moving to major American cities Apartment placing, job hunting, getting fair treatment at work Taught members job skills that could lead to better job

4 CORE The Congress of Racial Equality Founded in 1942 by pacifists seeking change through peaceful confrontation Interracial During WWII, they organized demonstrations against segregation in cities such as Baltimore, Chicago, Denver, and Detroit. After WWII, director James Farmer worked without pay in order to keep the organization alive. The Civil Rights Movement gave him a new base of support and the organization would play a role in the confrontations that lay ahead.

5 SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference Founded in 1957 by Martin Luther King, Jr. Started after African American success in the Montgomery Bus Boycott Ministers and members convened to form the group and elected MLK their president SCLC shifted the focus of the Civil Rights Movement to the South Other Civil Rights organizations had been dominated by Northerners but the SCLC put Southern church leaders in the forefront in the struggle for equal rights

6 MLK LEADS A MOVEMENT King used his SCLC post to become a leader in the Civil Rights Movement Born in Atlanta – raised Baptist – went to college in Atlanta – got his PhD from Boston and became a preacher in Atlanta Before he was 30 yrs. old, King was playing a central role in the civil rights movement as a result of his leadership in the bus boycott Influenced by the beliefs of Gandhi who preached non-violence is the only way to achieve victory

7 NONVIOLENCE TRAINING After the Montgomery bus boycott, King began training followers for the future Shown clips of Gandhi – taught passive resistance Leaflets urged bus boycotters to follow 17 rules to maintaining a nonviolent approach as they rode newly desegregated busses Nonviolent protest was a practical strategy as well as a moral one It forced whites to confront the difficulties African Americans faced and persuaded many of them to offer their support

8 SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee – originally part of the SCLC Ella Baker believed the NAACP and SCLC did not keep up with the demands of young African Americans -> she was wanting to encourage the youth to play a role Shifted away from church leaders and let the youth make decisions about priorities and tactics Robert Moses – one the most influential SNCC leaders

9 FREEDOM RIDES Tested 1961 Supreme Court decision of Boynton v. Virginal which prohibited segregation on buses traveling across state lines – waiting rooms and dining facilities that served interstate travelers could no longer be segregated Freedom Riders rode interstate buses down south and stopped at terminals along the way At first encountered little problems -> got worse in the Deep South Anniston, Alabama – white mob with guns, and knives stopped a bus and threw a firebomb into it -> riders were physically beaten

10 SECTION 2 – NON-VIOLENT CONFRONTATION CORE created the sit-in Sit-ins involved AA CORE members, often accompanied by white members, sitting down in a segregated establishment and refused to leave until they were served or accommodated Tested the limits of segregation and put business owners’ profits at risk by causing disruption CORE brought an end to segregation in the facilities it targeted Sit-ins became a common practice for many groups participating in the CR Movement Sit-ins gained support from MLK In 1961, 70,000 students participated in sit-ins while 3,600 served time in jail Protests failed to change Southern customs immediately but began a process of change which could be contained no longer

11 FREEDOM RIDES Federal marshals were assigned to protect the Freedom Rides Kennedy and the Justice Department pressured the Interstate Commerce Commission to issue a ruling prohibiting segregation in interstate transportation – federal government forced communities to follow new regulations

12 ALBANY MOVEMENT Started after the success of the Freedom Rides in October 1961 Albany Movement started in Albany, Georgia began a year long campaign of protest marches Demanded desegregation of bus terminals, and sought to open talks with white community leaders to address racial injustices MLK hoped to lead movement

13 ALBANY MOVEMENT FAILURES Local civil rights leaders resented MLK for swooping in to take charge of a movement Albany police chief prevented the national press from seeing and reporting on the worst violations of civil rights committed by his forces He even joined demonstrators in prayer before they were carted off to jail His “nonviolent” opposition kept the Movement from stirring up the same nationwide sympathy as the Freedom Rides had done Fizzled out by the end of 1962 with few real accomplishments

14 OLE MISS September 1962 – James Meredith sues the University of Mississippi when he was denied entrance into the school on racial grounds Supreme Court upheld his claim – Mississippi Governor, however, declared Meredith would not be able to enroll Major riot occurred – one angry resident tried to drive a bulldozer into the administration building – tear gas used Pres. Kennedy brought in Army troops to restore order and Meredith entered the university with troops to ensure his safety – he graduated in 1963.

15 BIRMINGHAM CONFRONTATION Birmingham, AL – scene for another nonviolent protest MLK invited - the local business leaders and police commissioner did not want protestors there MLK arrested on the grounds of a protest march violating a regulation prohibiting parades with a permit MLK wrote his famous “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” in which he defended his tactics and timing

16 BIRMINGHAM CONFRONTATION MLK released from jail more than a week later by posting bail To test the conscience of Birmingham, children were brought into the protesting 900 children arrested Fire hoses used Police attack dogs used Policemen beat protestors with clubs and took them to jail Caught on TV – many viewers were revolted, even those unsympathetic to the civil rights movement

17 BIRMINGHAM CONFRONTATION Results Protestors won Compromise led to desegregation of the city, fairer hiring practices, and organization of a biracial committee to keep communication open Proved the effectiveness of nonviolent protest

18 SECTION 3 – THE POLITICAL RESPONSE John Kennedy, once in office, moved slowly as he did not want to alienate Southern Senators whose votes were needed to support foreign policy goals He appointed numerous African Americans to powerful positions Example: Thurgood Marshall – Supreme Court

19 KENNEDY Kennedy was disturbed by the violence down South – the race riots surrounding the Freedom Rides were an embarrassment to Kennedy when meeting with Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev Appeared on TV – called equality issues a “moral issue” and knew he had to do something Introduced a strong civil rights bill but could not get it to pass through a Congress dominated by white southerners

20 THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON Used to lobby for Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill Kennedy tried to sidetrack the march as he did not want it to lead to more violence in the U.S. and alienate Congress even more – his efforts to call off the demonstration failed LBJ told the marchers that the march may backfire – MLK said it was happening – Kennedy bowed to the inevitable and supported the march Took place in August 1963

21 MARCH OF WASHINGTON More than 200,000 people came from all over the country to call for jobs and freedom Prominent African American celebrities were present Jackie Robinson, Sammy Davis Leaders of all the major civil rights organizations addressed the crowd MLK “I Have a Dream” Kennedy was impressed with King’s skill but the bill remained stalled in Congress

22 LYNDON JOHNSON’S ROLE Three months later, JFK was dead and LBJ was in office Upon becoming president LBJ was determined to use his political skills to get JFK’s civil rights bill passed LBJ told Congress “no compromise” – used cloture method to cut off debate – bill passed Civil Rights Bill of 1964 banned discrimination in all public accommodations and gave the Justice Department more authority to act in school segregation and voting rights cases – equal opportunity provision

23 LYNDON JOHNSON’S ROLE Civil Rights struggle still continued Ku Klux Klan rallies to intimidate volunteers in the Freedom Summer Civil rights workers were still being murdered Bombings, shootings, and mob attacks still persisted Mississippi Freedom Democratic party LBJ compromised to end discrimination in the Mississippi delegation – delegation said no and LBJ knew something had to be done

24 LYNDON JOHNSON’S ROLE LBJ appeared on TV speaking about voting rights Was able to turn back a filibuster and got Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Gave the federal government the power to register voters in areas where local officials prevented African Americans from voting Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act were landmarks in the history of civil rights

25 SECTION 4 – BLACK POWER The Civil Rights Movement shifted to ideals of pride and power, rather than peaceful resistance, as many African Americans thought the pace of progress was too slow James Baldwin – “Notes of a Native Son” Attacked de jure segregation The pattern of separation dictated by the laws in the South Attacked de facto segregation The separation that resulted from the ghetto conditions in many northern cities

26 MALCOLM X Expressed African American anger Malcolm Little converted to the Nation of Islam and changed his name to Malcolm X Nation of Islam – African American religious group that believes in the religion of Islam Disagreed with both the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement Said integration would not work Broke from the Nation of Islam and started his own religious organization called Muslim Mosque, Inc. – made a pilgrimage to Mecca Returned and said he was wrong to preach hatred of white people Assassinated in February 1965 by three members of the Nation of Islam Message lived on and attracted the attention of many SNCC worker

27 BLACK POWER RAGES Stokely Carmichael was influenced by Malcolm X Got tired of civil disobedience and told his SNCC workers to carry guns for defense and wanted to ban whites from joining SNCC Elected head of the organization in 1966 and demonstrated radicalism in SNCC Called for “Black Power” or a new movements seeking unity, self-determination, and economic/political power

28 BLACK POWER RAGES Fall 1966, a new political party called the Black Panthers is founded by African American militants Wanted A. Americans to lead their own communities and demanded the federal government to rebuild the nation’s ghettos as repayment for years of discrimination Led to a serious split in the civil rights movement as radical groups moved away from more conservative groups like the NAACP

29 RIOTS IN THE STREETS Riots in American cities were symptoms of continuing poor conditions for African Americans There were subtle forms of discrimination in the North such as keeping African Americans from getting high paying jobs, job training programs, and suburban housing Race riots happened across America from New York to Los Angeles

30 LEGACY OF THE MOVEMENT Lyndon Johnson was devastated by the violence that exploded near the end of his presidency The measures of his administration brought good results but were not enough Despite the need for further progress, the movement brought tremendous change Segregation was illegal – African Americans were assured their right to vote – African American power changed the nature of American political life Between 1970-1975 the number of African American elected officials rose by 88% - African Americans served as mayors in large cities like Atlanta, Detroit, Los Angeles, and Newark and served in Congress in larger numbers as well. Black studies courses appeared in high schools and colleges. African Americans had a new sense of pride and identity in their ethnic heritage The U.S. was being made into a fairer society for all

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