2 1. What caused the American fur trade to move westward in the early 1800s? a. Fur companies wiped out the beaver population in the East in their effort to meet European demand for the popular “high hat.”b. Fur trappers called “mountain men” wanted to be the first to map western territory and asked the American Fur Company to sponsor their journey.c. The American Fur Company sent mountain men to the West in its effort to beat its competitors from Europe and the East.d. American Indian trappers from the Pacific Northwest were acclaimed for their skill and eastern companies wanted to know their secrets.
3 a. Fur companies wiped out the beaver population in the East in their effort to meet European demand for the popular “high hat.”
4 2. All of these were challenges that pioneers faced on the Oregon Trail EXCEPT? a. shortages of food, supplies, and waterb. mistreatment by American Indiansc. barriers such as mountainsd. the high cost of moving a family
6 3. Which was true about the Oregon Trail? a. It ran through the Appalachian Mountains.b. It was a gravel paved road that made travel much easier than normal trailsc. It required protection by U.S. government troops.d. It took six months to travel.
8 4. When they first moved from New York in the early 1830s, what did Mormons hope to find in the West?a. gold and other natural resourcesb. a sense of religious freedomc. a site for their Great Templed. a set of silver tablets with religious teachings
10 5. Which practice caused Mormons to be persecuted in the 1850s? a. the ritual slaughter of animalsb. the circumcision of newborn malesc. marriage to more than one wifed. sacrificing humans to the sun god
14 7. Why did Mexican priest Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla lead about 80,000 American Indians and mestizos in a rebellion in 1810?a. The people were uprooted and thought an attack would push American settlers back over Mexico’s northern border.b. The priest believed that the “meek will inherit the earth” and wanted to make the Christian dream a reality.c. The people were poor and thought independence from the Spanish monarchy would improve their lives.d. The priest believed that Mexico should have a Christian king and wanted to take the place of the secular monarch.
15 c. The people were poor and thought independence from the Spanish
16 #8 Who was Stephen F. Austin? a. an empresario who started a colony on the lower Colorado River in 1822b. an American agent who enforced Mexico’s laws on new settlers until 1830c. the only American to witness the signing of the Mexican constitution in 1824d. a southern settler who spurred Texans to defy the ban on slavery in 1831
17 a. an empresario who started a colony on the lower Colorado River in 1822
18 a. requirement of citizenship. b. prohibition on importing slaves. #9 After 1824, all of the following created conflicts between the Mexican government and American settlers in Texas EXCEPT Mexico’sa. requirement of citizenship.b. prohibition on importing slaves.c. strict enforcement of its laws.d. heavy taxation of settled lands.
20 b. the Battle of the Alamo c. the Battle of Gonzales #10. “…I call on you in the name of Liberty, of patriotism, and everything dear to the American character, to come to our aid with all dispatch [speed]…VICTORY OR DEATH.”--from a letter written by William Travis Travis wrote those words during the build-up to which important battle of the Texas War for Independence?a. the Battle of Goliadb. the Battle of the Alamoc. the Battle of Gonzalesd. the Battle of San Jacinto
22 11. Why was the Battle of the Alamo significant to the outcome of the Texas Revolution? a. Frontiersman Davy Crockett and Colonel Jim Bowie joined the Texan defenses.b. The Texans were beaten, but Sam Houston’s forces were inspired to win the Battle of San Jacinto.c. Prisoners who had surrendered at Goliad were released, adding to the Texan defenses.d. The Texans suffered heavy losses, but the survivors overcame Antonio López de Santa Anna’s army.
23 b. The Texans were beaten, but Sam Houston’s forces were inspired to win the Battle of San Jacinto.
24 12. President Jackson refused to annex Texas because doing so would have a. upset the balance between free and slave states.b. gone against the wishes of Congress.c. encouraged wars of independence in other border areas.d. admitted to the British that western expansion had ended.
25 a. upset the balance between free and slave states.
26 13. What is another way of saying “manifest destiny”? a. “clear choice”b. “people’s future”c. “obvious fate”d. “humanity’s end”
28 14. How did the slavery issue get tied up with “manifest destiny” in the 1840s and ’50s? a. Slaveholders did not know if ownership claims would be honored in the new territories.b. Americans did not know if the institution of slavery would be allowed in the new territories.c. Slavery went against the democratic values implied by the philosophy of “manifest destiny.”d. Southern slaveholders thought expansion in the spirit of “manifest destiny” would cause their region to lose power.
29 b. Americans did not know if the institution of slavery would be allowed in the new territories.
30 15. Why did President John Tyler, a Whig from Virginia, favor the annexation of Texas during the Election of 1844?a. He was pressured by southerners who threatened to give their votes to Senator Henry Clay.b. He wanted Texas to be a free state that could not compete with the South’s plantations.c. He thought the annexation of Texas would increase the power of southern slave states.d. He stood in opposition to James K. Polk, who ran on a platform against annexation.
31 c. He thought the annexation of Texas would increase the power of southern slave states.
32 16. Americans cried “Fifty-four forty or fight!” in reference to a. the line to which they wanted their northern territory to extend.b. the number of prisoners they wanted Santa Anna to release.c. the line that marked the northern border of what is now California.d. the number of American fighters whose deaths they wanted to avenge.
33 a. the line to which they wanted their northern territory to extend.
34 17. Who referred to a piece of land as a “stolen province,” and what were they talking about? a. The British, about Oregon Countryb. The American Indians, about Utahc. The Mexicans, about Texasd. The Spanish, about California
36 18. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain 18. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain. What happened in California as a result?a. Californios fought for independence from Mexico.b. American Indians were given parcels of land called ranchos.c. Mexican businessmen planned a rail route to Canada.d. Mexican officials terminated the mission system.
37 d. Mexican officials terminated the mission system.
38 19. What happened during the Bear Flag Revolt? a. A union of Spanish settlers rose up against the Californios in the Mission district of San Francisco.b. John C. Frémont’s mapping expedition fought off a black bear while crossing the Sierra Nevadas.c. General Taylor led his troops across the Rio Grande to protect Texas against a Mexican uprising.d. A small group of Americans seized the town of Sonoma and declared California’s independence.
39 d. A small group of Americans seized the town of Sonoma and declared California’s independence.
40 20. How did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, signed in 1848, affect the United States? a. It drew the border line that divides the U.S. from Mexico to this day.b. It enabled the U.S. to collect $18 million in property taxes from Mexico.c. It increased the size of the U.S. by almost 25 percent.d. It gave the U.S. the southern parts of present-day Arizona and New Mexico.
41 c. It increased the size of the U.S. by almost 25 percent.
42 21. How did the Gadsden Purchase benefit the United States? a. It promised to safeguard the property rights of longtime U.S. residents.b. It allowed the U.S. to purchase the northern part of present day Arizona.c. It gave the U.S. hunting rights in the area of Texas north of the Rio Grande.d. It secured a southern route for a transcontinental railroad on American soil.
43 d. It secured a southern route for a transcontinental railroad on American soil.
44 22. How did Brigham Young’s influence resolve the western dispute over water rights? a. Young supported the eastern U.S. tradition regarding equal access to water.b. Young felt that irrigation was less effective than dams or canals for large-scale agriculture.c. Young promoted the idea that the good of the community should outweigh the interests of individuals.d. Young felt that addressing individual water use was the key to resolving the problem for the entire community.
45 c. Young promoted the idea that the good of the community should outweigh the interests of individuals.
46 23. In the 1830s to 1840s, why did a growing number of Americans travel the California Trail? a. Recently published Anglo-Californian guidebooks persuaded settlers to move to the region.b. American and Mexican merchants would meet in California to trade factory-made goods for precious coins, hides, and tallow.c. Taken by the spirit of “manifest destiny,” many Americans decided to settle permanently at the continent’s western edge.d. American cattle ranchers were attracted by the Spanish government’s promise of Mexican land.
47 b. American and Mexican merchants would meet in California to trade factory-made goods for precious coins, hides, and tallow.
48 24. What lesson might a western traveler have learned from the story of the Donner party? a. “There are no good shortcuts.”b. “Don’t always trust what you read in the papers.”c. “Always travel with a friend.”d. “Help is on the way.”
50 25. Which description fits the group of people known as “forty-niners”? a. gold-seekers from America and abroad who migrated to Californiab. individualistic prospectors of California gold-mining sitesc. middle-aged married men with previous gold-mining experienced. Mexicans and South Americans who immigrated to find gold
51 a. gold-seekers from America and abroad who migrated to California
52 26. Which of these statements about the consequences of the Gold Rush years is true? a. The population of San Francisco grew, by over twenty-five times, to more than 25,000.b. The vast majority of gold-rush miners left California and took their earnings to their families back east.c. Mexicans and South Americans came to make up the largest foreign group in the mining region.d. The large amount of gold in circulation in California caused severe deflation, meaning prices dropped.
53 a. The population of San Francisco grew, by over twenty-five times, to more than 25,000
54 27. What happened to California’s population as a result of the Gold Rush? a. The population grew, but not as much as it had during the Spanish and Mexican periods of settlement.b. Immigrants and Americans flocked to California to “get rich quick” and stayed to build a stable frontier society.c. The population boomed during “gold fever,” but declined just as quickly because of inflation.d. Californios and American Indians still outnumbered immigrants and Americans after the Gold Rush.
55 b. Immigrants and Americans flocked to California to “get rich quick” and stayed to build a stable frontier society.
56 28. As a result of the population explosion of the “gold fever” years, California became a. eligible for statehood.b. more populous than any other region in the country.c. richer than any other region in the country.d. off limits to new immigrants.
58 29. What role did the Transcontinental Railroad play in California’s development? a. It contributed to California’s population explosion by bringing settlers to the West in the mid-1850s.b. It gave California’s economy the means to grow by connecting the state to the rest of the country.c. It slowed down California’s economy because it took two decades and many thousands of dollars to complete.d. It damaged California’s environment by requiring the development of coal mining and timber industries.
59 b. It gave California’s economy the means to grow by connecting the state to the rest of the country.
60 b. plantation agriculture c. manufacturing d. trade 30. Which of the following was least important to the South’s economy in the 1830s?a. small farmingb. plantation agriculturec. manufacturingd. trade
62 31. Which of the following was not a difference between the North and the South ? a. conflicting views on the issue of slaveryb. different economic interestsc. disagreement over the Indian removal policyd. disagreement over protective tariffs
64 32. What was the main job of the early mountain men of the West? a. to make mapsb. to trap furs to trade with merchantsc. to establish friends with Native Americansd. to cut roads through the mountains
68 34. Which of the following trails led settlers west from either Independence, Missouri or Council Bluffs, Iowa to the Willamette Valleya. California Trailb. Mormon Trailc. Oregon Traild. Santa Fe Trail
82 41. What was the main reason that James K 41. What was the main reason that James K. Polk won the presidency against Henry Clay in the election of 1844?a. the economyb. the Spanish-American Warc. the expansion issued. the fight over slavery
92 46. At what battle were approximately 200 rebel volunteers able to hold off Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna with about 1800 troops for 12 days at an old mission outside of San Antonio??a. Battle of San JacintoBattle of the AlamoBattle of Buena VistaBattle of Goliad
96 48. Why did President Polk send diplomat John Slidell to Mexico City? To explain that we had decided to declare war on them and wanted to give them advanced notice before we attackedc.To discuss where Texas should put their capital following it gaining its independence from Spain and Mexicob.To try and settle the border dispute by purchasing New Mexico and Californiad.To get Mexico to pay the United States not to attack them to pay off our war debts from the Mexican-American War.
97 B. To try and settle the border dispute by purchasing New Mexico and California
98 49. Where was the disputed territory between the United States and Mexico? The far Northwestern part of the Mexican Territory in California between San Francisco and Los Angeles.c.The area between Mexico City and the ancient city Tenochtitlan.b.The Southwestern part of Texas between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande River.d.The Southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
99 b. The Southwestern part of Texas between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande River.
100 50. What location did President Polk send Zachary Taylor to take up camp in March of 1846, knowing it would irritate the Mexican Army and most likely provoke a fight?a.to the northern border of the Rio Grande Riverc.to the far western part of Mexico near Tijuana.b.to San Diego which was southeast of San Franciso.d.to Buena Vista which was North of Mexico City.
101 a. to the northern border of the Rio Grande River
102 a. Andrew Jackson c. Zachary Taylor b. Stephen F. Austin d. 51. What American general defeated the Mexican general, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna in bitter fighting with many casualties at the Battle of Buena Vista in February of 1847??a.Andrew Jacksonc.Zachary Taylorb.Stephen F. Austind.Winfield Scott
104 a. Andrew Jackson c. Zachary Taylor b. Stephen F. Austin d. 52. Who was the American general that defeated General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and took Mexico City on September 14, 1847??a.Andrew Jacksonc.Zachary Taylorb.Stephen F. Austind.Winfield Scott
106 53. What was the name given to the acquisition of the entire states of Nevada, California, and Utah and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming called?Gadsden PurchaseThe Louisiana PurchaseMexican Cessiond. Spanish Cession
108 a. 5 million dollars c. 30 million dollars b. 15 million dollars d. 54. How much did we agree to pay Mexico for the acquisition of the entire states of Nevada, California, and Utah and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming??a.5 million dollarsc.30 million dollarsb.15 million dollarsd.100 million dollars
110 55. Which of the following were types of discrimination that Native Americans and Mexican Americans faced in the areas the United States acquired in the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War?a. Legalb. Economicc. Sociald. All of the above
112 56. Which of the following describe the type of searching for gold called “placer mining”? digging shallow into the earth and breaking rocks using a hammer and pickc.taking a large hammer or sledgehammer to break boulders into smaller rocks hoping to find goldb.using a pan or other device to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock or graveld.using dynamite or nitro glycerin to blow up small areas and look for shiny rocks.
113 b. using a pan or other device to wash gold nuggets out of loose rock or gravel
114 57. Which of the following best describes the average forty-niner? young unmarried men in search of adventurec.hard working men with families that had debts that finding gold would fixb.middle aged men whose wife had left them and they had nothing to losed.foreigners from India, Russia, and the Middle East
116 a. India c. China b. Russia d. Germany 58. What foreign country that suffered famine and economic hardships had men come to California looking for great wealth and then planned to return home??a.Indiac.Chinab.Russiad.Germany
118 a. Searchers c. Prospectors b. Panners d. Entrepreneurs 59. What was the name given to forty-niners that were looking and trying to find gold in California?a.Searchersc.Prospectorsb.Pannersd.Entrepreneurs