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Rise of Totalitarian Dictators

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1 Rise of Totalitarian Dictators

2 Benito Mussolini Italy after WWI Disappointed w/ Versailles settlement
Severe Economic crisis War drove up expenses Cost of living shot up 500% Unemployment was rising Widespread social unrest Upper and middle classes feared unrest might lead to Communism

3 Mussolini Seizes Power
Mussolini organized war veterans Known as Black Shirts Roamed the streets beating up Communists Fascists won support from the middle class, aristocracy and the industrialists By 1922, Mussolini was named Prime Minister Effectively taking power from King Victor Emmanuel III By 1924, he is known as Il Duce

4 Italy under Il Duce Democracy was removed
All political parties were abolished Press was censored Secret police clamped down on all opposition Mussolini believed business owners and workers must be forced to cooperate Set up 22 state corp. to run all parts of Italy’s economy Strikes were against the law Both Franco in Spain and Hitler in Germany would borrow ideas from Mussolini

5 Stalin’s Rise to Power Born in Georgia
Southern border of the Russian empire Changed his name to Stalin, means “man of steel” Cold, hard, and impersonal Beaten by his father Low self-esteem because of his looks

6 Became leader of Russia in 1928
He believed that foreign enemies would attack the Soviet Union (since 1922) Felt Russia needed to modernize or be taken over

7 Industrial Revolution
Five-Year Plan for development of USSR Desired growth in all parts of the country Set specific goals for each industry Goals were high Economists thought them to be impossible Government took control of production Decided who worked, where they worked, how long Secret police imprisoned or executed those who didn’t contribute 1st and 2nd Five-Year Plans produced great results USSR was becoming an industrial power

8 Five-Year Plan Propaganda

9 Agricultural Revolution
1928, privately owned farms were abolished There were 25 million small farms in 1928 Replaced with collective farms Worked by hundreds of families Equipped w/ modern machinery Eventually produce more food w/ fewer people

10 Agricultural Revolution
Peasants resisted change 5-10 million peasants died Millions were shipped to Siberia Farmers horded and destroyed their crops and livestock 1931 and 1932, one of the greatest famines in the countries history 1938, 90% of all peasants lived on collective farms Produced about as much wheat as it had in 1928 Before collectivization

11 Stalin turns against his own Party
, tried and executed millions of people Old Bolsheviks from Lenin’s Era Others were tried as well People who had friends in foreign counties Factory and farm managers Second in command and most loyal advisor

12 Germany and Adolf Hitler
No country suffered more after WWI than Germany Factories stopped production Banks closed 1932, 40% unemployment Upper & middle classes turned to Fascism known as Nazism

13 Nazism Blamed the Treaty of Versailles for Germany’s troubles
Condemned democracy as a foreign system Forced on them by Allied Powers Declared economic problems stem from Losing it’s European territories and colonies The burden of reparations to France and GB Believed that Germany must regain its military power

14 Hitler’s Rise to Power Born in a small town in Austria in 1889
Dropped out of High School Moved to Vienna to study art & architecture Lived an aimless life Lived in hotels and did odd jobs

15 Hitler’s Rise to Power WWI broke out
Volunteered for the German army Fought well and twice won the Iron Cross WWI ended and Hitler went to Munich Joined National Socialist German Workers’ Party called Nazis for short Adopted the swastika in 1920 Set up private army called the Storm Troopers or SA

16 Hitler becomes Fuhrer of the Nazi’s
Public speaking less polished than Mussolini filled with hatred He would began his speech in a normal voice, get louder and louder as anger swelled up. Finally, he would seem to lose all self-control. His face would puff with rage, his voice would rise to a screech, and his hands would flail around in the air. Then he would suddenly stop, smooth his hair, and calm again.

17 Hitler takes control of Germany
Nazis became the largest party in Germany during the Depression of the 1930’s 1933 Germany’s president named Hitler chancellor Hitler’s first act as chancellor was to call for new Reichstag (parliament) elections someone set fire to the Reichstag building just days before the elections the Nazis blamed the Communists

18 Nazis won a majority of the seats
Due to “Communist sabotage” Nazi storm troopers at voting centers

19 The Revolution begins Nazis excluded Communists from Reichstag
Passed the Enabling Act gave Hitler the right to make laws for the next 4 years without the approval of the Reichstag gave Hitler his dictatorship Banned competing political parties Ruled through his secret police, the Gestapo By mid 1930’s, concentration camps had been set up to jail anyone who had opposing political ideas Later “Final Solution”

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