Presentation on theme: "1. How, according to Sources 1 and 3, are the Communists defining the idea of ‘building socialism’? Source 1 defines ‘building socialism’ as ‘industrialisation."— Presentation transcript:
1. How, according to Sources 1 and 3, are the Communists defining the idea of ‘building socialism’? Source 1 defines ‘building socialism’ as ‘industrialisation and economic modernisation’, achieved by building factories and towns. Source 3 describes how Communists saw building socialism as ‘rapid industrialisation and forcible collectivisation of peasant agriculture’.
2. Using Sources 2 and 4, find at least three reasons why Stalin wanted to transform Soviet society. Didn’t want Russia to be ‘beaten’ by other countries Wanted to reform Russia into a modern country by improving military, culture, politics, industry and agriculture. Modernisation of countryside Wanted to compete with capitalism
Study the pictorial Sources 5-8. Explain, referring to the detail in the source, what message each is conveying about the way Soviet society is going to change. Modernisation through mechanisation – tractor represents the future of farming Modernisation through education – peasants are being educated in latest farming methods
Study the pictorial Sources 5-8. Explain, referring to the detail in the source, what message each is conveying about the way Soviet society is going to change. Society will become more efficient and productive through better planning and organisation
Study the pictorial Sources 5-8. Explain, referring to the detail in the source, what message each is conveying about the way Soviet society is going to change. Society will industrialise through the efforts of all workers
Study the pictorial Sources 5-8. Explain, referring to the detail in the source, what message each is conveying about the way Soviet society is going to change. Society will become more equal – all will work to build socialism
1. Fill in the table below to show how different sections of society reacted to the problem of grain procurement: BureaucratWhy is more grain needed and why isn’t it reaching the markets? More grain is needed in order to export abroad to make foreign currency which is used to pay for foreign technology and machines in order to industrialise. Grain isn’t reaching markets because: a) farming is inefficient and doesn’t produce enough b) the revolution destroyed old, efficient farms c) peasants are holding onto grain Government Official How would you persuade more peasants to get more grain to market? Use propaganda to persuade peasants to sell more grain Raise the price of grain at market? Threaten/force peasants to sell more grain? PeasantHow and why would you avoid sending more grain to the markets? Hide grain, feed grain to animals and then sell them, sell on black market Why? Government doesn’t pay as high enough for grain, if we hold onto grain, they will be forced to raise price
2.Decide which policy you think is the better one for Stalin to follow. Give your reasons for choosing that policy and identify three criticisms you could make of the other policy.
Policy 1 – Carry on with the NEP Increasing the price of grain will encourage peasants to sell food to government. This will give peasants more money to spend on better equipment like tractors to produce even more food. Using force will anger peasants who might hid more grain. Collectivisation provides no incentive for peasants to work hard Poor peasants means inefficient farming Policy 2 – Rapid industrialisation Rapid industrialisation is needed to defend Russia. Forced industrialisation is quick and collectives means we can monitor peasants better. NEP allows peasants to remain as landowners – not communism! Russia is too backward – it will take to long to industrialise unless something is done soon Russia doesn’t have time to industrialise naturally – too many enemies!
4. Reasons for the Great Turn 1.Increase military strength – factories were needed for this 2.Achieve self-sufficiency – resulting in long-term security for communism in a hostile world 3.Increase grain supplies – necessary to pay for industrialisation 4.Achieving Socialism – rapid industrialisation and collectivisation will help socialise people into good communists 5.Establish his credentials – his credibility as leader rested on his promise to ‘build socialism in one country’. Stalin needed the modernise Russia in order to secure his own hold on power. 6.Standards of Living – this needed to improve in order to improve for Stalin to gain support amongst people, and to help spread communism abroad
What was collectivisation and how did it work? L/O – To identify the key features of collectivisation
The following sources are examples of propaganda published to persuade peasants of the advantages of collectivisation. Consider what messages each source contains about why the Communists thought collectivisation was a good thing.
Source B – Outdoor Nursery on a collective farm
Source C – A literacy class on a collective farm
Source D – The slogan reads, ‘Come and join our kolkhoz, comrade!’
Why Collectivise? At the 15 th Party Congress in December 1927, Stalin announced the First Five-Year Plan which called for rapid industrialisation and he announced that a programme of collectivisation would be enforced in farming. In mid-1929, less than 5% of peasants were on collective farms but in January 1930, Stalin announced that around 25% would be collectivised by the end of the year. Some were horrified by the rapid pace of forced collectivisation which would result in a famine in which millions died.
What was a collective farm? Three main types of collective farm: 1.The toz, where peasants owned their land but shared machinery and co-operated in activities like sowing and harvesting. Common before 1930. 2.The sovkhoz, which was owned and run by the state. The peasants on this state farm were paid a regular wage, very much like factory workers. 3.The kolkhoz, where all land was held in common and run by an elected committee. 50-100 households were put together. All land, tools and livestock was shared. All farmed the land as one unit but families were allowed to keep on acre of land to grow vegetables and keep an animal.
Why was collectivisation the solution? 1.More efficient farming through the use of mechanisation, supplied by the machine and tractor stations (MTS). Experts could help educate peasants to use metal ploughs and chemical fertilisers. Result would be increased food production. 2.Mechanised farming would require less workers thereby releasing workers for new factories. 3.Easier for government to procure grain as fewer collection points and each farm would have Communist Party members to record production. 4.The peasantry would be ‘socialised’. You could not build a socialist state when the majority of the population were private landholders who sold their produce for profit.
Why was it carried out so rapidly? Read the worksheet and answer the questions attached to work out why Stalin carried out collectivisation so rapidly. Remember that it is difficult to explain the actions of politicians as they have to cope with a range of interrelated issues at any given time. The table on the right highlights the various political and economic pressures Stalin was under. Trying to push forward rapid industrialisation plans on which his credibility as leader was staked. Dealing with the problem of feeding workers, his natural supporters. Engaged in a power struggle to become leader of the party Fighting a political battle with Bukharin and the right about the pace of industrialisation and how they should handle the peasants Thinking about a long-term solution to allow the development of agriculture. Had enough of peasants?
How was it carried out? Force, terror and propaganda were the main methods employed in carrying through collectivisation. Stalin used the ideological weapon of ‘class enemy’ as the mechanism to achieve his ends. The enemy in the countryside – the Kulak! In December 1929, he announced the ‘liquidation of the kulaks as a class’. Molotov said they would hit the kulaks so hard that the so-called ‘middle peasants’ would ‘snap to attention before us’.
How was it carried out? The aim of identifying the kulak as a class enemy was to frighten the middle and poor peasants into joining the kolkhozes. Villagers were often unwilling to identify kulaks, many of whom were relatives or friends. Kulaks were part of a village community in which the ties to fellow peasants were much stronger than those to the Communist state. Poor peasants often wrote letters in defence of ‘kulaks’.
How was it carried out? Many local party officials opposed forced collectivisation, believing it was unworkable. They were unwilling to identify good farmers as kulaks. They also knew it would tear the countryside apart. So Stalin enlisted an army of 25,000 urban party activists to help revolutionise the countryside. After a two-week course, they were sent out in brigades to oversee collectivisation, backed by local police, the OGPU/NKVD and the military.
How was it carried out? Their task was to root out the kulaks and persuade the middle and poor peasants to sign a register demanding to be collectivised. The land, animals, tools, equipment and buildings would be taken from the kulaks and used as a basis for the new collective farm. The ‘Twenty-five Thousanders’ had no real knowledge of how to organise or run a collective farm, but they did know how to wage class warfare.
How was it carried out? ‘Dekulakisation’ went ahead at full speed. Each region was given a quota of kulaks to find and they found them whether they existed or not. Kulaks were divided into 3 categories: Counter-revolutionaries who were to be shot or sent to the Gulag Active opponents of collectivisation, who were deported to other areas of the USSR Those expelled from farms and settled on poor land
How was it carried out? A decree of 1 st February 1930 gave local party organisations the power to use ‘necessary measures’ against the kulaks. Whole families and whole villages were rounded up and deported. People were shot and their families deported. Up to 10 million people had been deported to Siberia or labour camps by the end of the collectivisation process.
How was it carried out? Communists also mounted huge propaganda campaigns to extol the advantages of collective farms and to inflame class hatred. This was effective as some poorer peasants did denounce their neighbours as kulaks – often as revenge for past grievances. Children was also encouraged to inform on their neighbours. One 13- year-old girl even denounced her mother for stealing grain.
Peasant Resistance Peasants resisted collectivisation bitterly despite the mass deportations. There were riots and armed resistance. One riot lasted for 5 days and armoured cars had to be brought in to restore order. Peasants burned crops, tools and houses rather than hand them over to the state. Raids were mounted to recapture animals that had already been taken into the collective.
Peasant Resistance Women often played the most advanced role in the reaction against the collective farm. Women’s protests were carefully organised, with specific goals such as stopping grain requisitioning or retrieving collectivised horses. The government found their tactics difficult as troops were unwilling to take action against women.
Peasant Resistance Another form of resistance was to slaughter animals and eat or sell the meat rather than hand over the beasts to the kolkhoz: ‘Kill, it’s not ours any more… Kill, they’ll take it for meat anyway… Kill, you won’t get meat on the collective farm… And they killed. They ate until they could eat no more. Young and old suffered from stomach ache. At dinner-time tables groaned under boiled and roasted meat. At dinner- time every one had a greasy mouth… everyone blinked like an owl, as if drunk from eating.’ Mikhail Sholokhov, Virgin Soil Upturned (1935)
Summary Questions 1.What were the 3 types of collective farm? 2.Why was collectivisation seen as the solution to the agricultural problems in Russia? 3.Why did Stalin carry out collectivisation so rapidly? 4.Who were kulaks? 5.Who were the ‘Twenty-Five Thousanders’? 6.What methods were used to ‘liquidate the kulaks’? 7.How and why did peasants resist collectivisation? Did we meet our learning objective? L/O – To identify the key features of collectivisation