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The Civil Rights Struggle Continues

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1 The Civil Rights Struggle Continues
Ch. 21, Sec 4, 5

2 Kennedy & Civil Rights Martin Luther King arrested in Georgia, sentenced to 4 months hard labor. While running for President in 1960, John F. Kennedy (Democrat)persuaded Georgia to release King on bail. Many black citizens switched votes to Kennedy, helped him barely win election. As Mass. Senator, JFK voted for civil rights, did not do much to help. As President, moved very slowly on civil rights issues. Needed support of white Southern Democrats.


4 Freedom Rides in 1961 forced JFK into action.
Went on tv, publicly supported civil rights movement. Hours later, NAACP official Medgar Evers shot & killed in Mississippi. JFK introduced bill prohibiting segregation in public places, banned discrimination wherever federal funding was used, advanced school desegregation. Southern Democrats prevented bill from coming to vote.


6 March was peaceful with no violence.
To give support to JFK’s bill, civil rights leaders organized March on Washington August 1963. 200,000 came from all over USA to call for “jobs & freedom”. Speakers/performers-writer James Baldwin, entertainer Sammy Davis, Jr., Baseball player Jackie Robinson, singers Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Peter, Paul & Mary. March was peaceful with no violence. During March, King gave “I Have A Dream” speech. March was great example of civil rights movement, but did nothing to help move legislation.



9 James Baldwin

10 Sammy Davis, Jr. Jackie Robinson

11 Bob Dylan Joan Baez

12 Peter, Paul, & Mary


14 3 months later, JFK assassinated, Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in.
Pushed Congress to pass JFK’s civil rights bill to “honor his memory”. House passed bill, Senate filibustered. Used nonstop speeches to prevent vote. Republicans used cloture to force vote. Procedure to end debate, call vote. June 1964-Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed, became law.



17 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Included:
Title I-Banned different voter registration standards for blacks and whites. Title II-Prohibited discrimination in public places. Included motels, restaurants, gas stations, theatres, arenas. Title VI-Federal funds withheld from programs practicing discrimination. Title VII-Banned discrimination based on race, sex, religion, national origin by employers, unions. Also created Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)-investigated charges of job discrimination.


19 Even with new law, civil rights movement resisted in south.
1964-Civil rights groups organized voter registration drive in Mississippi. Came to be known as Freedom Summer. Whites angry about law, voter drive, KKK held rallies to intimidate rights groups. During Freedom Summer, 80 mob attacks, volunteers beaten, some shot, 3 murdered. Black homes & churches firebombed, burned. Did not stop rights groups.




23 Summer 1964-Democratic national convention.
SNCC, new Mississippi voters organized Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), demanded they be seated as true delegates for Mississippi. LBJ offered them 2 of 68 seats, promised rules would change for ‘68 convention. MFDP refused, felt it fell short of goals. In Selma, AL, police arrested blacks trying to register to vote. King, other leaders organized Selma March from Selma to capital Montgomery, 50 miles. Attacked by police, mob, beaten, whipped, tear gassed. LBJ sent in National Guard, marshals, troops to protect marchers. Thousands joined marchers-25,000 total.






29 Due to Selma March, LBJ & Congress passed Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Federal officials could register voters if local officials refused. Ended all literacy tests, barriers to voting. th Amendment ratified. Outlawed poll tax, which was still used in south.


31 Civil rights movement turns angry
Many black citizens felt that movement was working, but too slowly. Wanted to take more drastic steps. Malcolm Little, known as Malcolm X. Raised listening to “back-to-Africa” messages. While in jail for burglary, joined Nation of Islam, aka Black Muslims. Viewed whites as oppressive, preached black separation.



34 1985-X assassinated at rally in New York by 3 Nation of Islam members.
Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad taught that Allah would create “Black Nation”, a union of all non-whites. Malcolm X learned from Muhammad, preached black nationalism-separate identity & racial unity of black community. X opposed integration, goals of early civil rights leaders. X eventually broke with Nation of Islam, formed group Muslim Mosque, Inc. When X made hajj to Mecca, saw all races worshipping together. Changed attitude completely, became willing to work with other civil rights leaders, whites. 1985-X assassinated at rally in New York by 3 Nation of Islam members.




38 Black Power movement SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael was tired of nonviolent protest, being beaten & jailed. Urged members to carry guns, rejected white involvement in SNCC. 1966-SNCC broke with peaceful activists. Advocated black power-unite, do what it takes to achieve rights & equality. Black power movement led to creation of new organizations.




42 Black Panthers formed by Bobby Seale & Huey Newton.
Wanted blacks to lead their own communities. Wanted gov’t to rebuild ghettos from years of neglect. Wanted to fight “police brutality” in ghettos. Fought police, whites, other civil rights leaders. Panthers, SNCC completely split from peaceful groups like NAACP.

43 Huey Newton Bobby Seale





48 Riots 1965-68, movement turned violent.
1965-black man pulled over for drunk driving in Watts, Los Angeles. Started out friendly, suspect resisted arrest, cop hit him with baton, led to six days of riots. Police & national guard eventually regained order, 34 dead, thousands injured. Riots spread to other cities throughout Gov’t set up National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. NACCD said riots due to anger in ghettos. US was moving toward separate societies-one black, one white.




52 1968 King started Poor People’s Campaign, hoping to help poor.
Felt poverty bred violence. April-was in Memphis, TN, offering support to striking garbage workers for better conditions. April 4-standing on balcony of hotel, sniper (James Earl Ray?) fired shot, killing King. Led to riots in 120 cities, 50 dead. Many now felt peaceful change impossible.



55 June 4, won California primary against Eugene McCarthy.
Senator Robert F. Kennedy continued brother’s legacy of civil rights reform. Ran for President in 1968. June 4, won California primary against Eugene McCarthy. About midnight, after victory speech, shot & killed by Sirhan Sirhan in hotel kitchen. Even though it didn’t always seem like it, tremendous achievements had been made, and more would come.




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