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Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 36 CREAMS, CUSTARDS, PUDDINGS, FROZEN DESSERTS, AND SAUCES
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. S UGAR C OOKING –A solution or syrup of sugar and water is boiled to evaporate part of the water. As the water is boiled off, the temperature of the syrup gradually rises. When all the water has evaporated, what you have left is melted sugar. BASIC PRINCIPLES
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. –A syrup cooked to a high temperature is harder when it is cooled than a syrup cooked to a lower temperature. One part water (by weight) is enough to dissolve and cook 3 to 4 parts sugar. There is no point in adding more water than is necessary because you just have to boil it off. S UGAR C OOKING BASIC PRINCIPLES (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Simple syrup is a solution of equal weights of sugar and water. –Combine equal weights of water and granulated sugar in a saucepan, stir, and bring to a boil to dissolve the sugar. –Cool the syrup. Dessert syrup is a flavored simple syrup used to moisten and flavor some cakes. S UGAR C OOKING SIMPLE SYRUP
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Graininess is a common fault in many candies and desserts. –Graininess results when cooked sugar crystallizes, or turns to tiny sugar crystals, rather than staying dissolved in the syrup. –If even one sugar crystal comes in contact with a cooked syrup, it can start a chain reaction that turns the whole thing into a mass of sugar crystals. Sometimes an acid such as cream of tartar is added to a syrup before cooking. Acids change some of the sugar to invert sugar, which resists crystallizing. S UGAR C OOKING CRYSTALLIZATION
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Testing the temperature with a candy thermometer is the most accurate way to determine the desired doneness of a syrup. –In the old days, syrups were tested by dropping a little bit into a bowl of cold water and checking the hardness of the cooled sugar. –Stages of doneness given names that described their hardness. S UGAR C OOKING STAGES OF SUGAR COOKING
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Stages of Doneness in Sugar Cooking StageTemp.º F Temp. º C Thread Soft ball Firm ball Hard ball250–260122–127 Small crack265–270130–132 Crack275–280135–138 Hard crack290–310143–155 Caramel320–340160–170 S UGAR C OOKING STAGES OF SUGAR COOKING
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Crème anglaise –A stirred custard. –Also called vanilla custard sauce. Pastry cream –Contains starch thickeners as well as eggs, resulting in a much thicker and more stable product. Baked custard –Baked so it sets and becomes firm. B ASIC C USTARDS AND C REAMS KEY POINTS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Follow these guidelines for successful, safe vanilla custard sauce: –Use clean, sanitized equipment, and follow strict sanitation procedures. Egg mixtures are good breeding grounds for bacteria that cause food poisoning. –To avoid scorching and curdling, set the pan of milk in a pan of boiling water. Slowly beat hot milk into beaten eggs and sugar. –Do not put your fingers in the product. –Do not taste the product except with a clean spoon. –Keep the finished product refrigerated at all times. B ASIC C USTARDS AND C REAMS Crème Anglaise
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Cornstarch pudding or blancmange –Consists of: Milk Sugar Flavorings –Thickened with cornstarch (or, sometimes, another starch) P UDDINGS S TARCH -T HICKENED P UDDINGS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Cream puddings –The only difference between cornstarch puddings and cream puddings is that the latter contains eggs. –Cream puddings may be made by stirring hot cornstarch pudding into beaten eggs. Then heat the entire mixture to just below the simmer. Care must be taken to avoid curdling the eggs if this method is used. P UDDINGS S TARCH -T HICKENED P UDDINGS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Baked puddings are custards that contain additional ingredients, usually in large quantities. –The procedure for making baked puddings is the same as for making baked custard. A water bath may not be necessary if the starch content of the pudding is high. Soft pie fillings, such as pumpkin, could also be considered baked puddings. P UDDINGS B AKED P UDDINGS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Also known as Bavarian cream or Bavarois, a bavarian is made of three basic elements: –Crème anglaise (flavored as desired) –Gelatin –Whipped cream Accurate measuring of the gelatin is important. –If not enough gelatin is used, the dessert will be too soft to hold its shape. –If too much is used, it will be too firm and rubbery. Bavarians, Chiffons, Mousses, and Soufflés B AVARIANS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Chiffons are most popular as fillings for chiffon pies. –They may also be served more simply as puddings and chilled desserts. Bases for chiffons include the following three main types: –Thickened with starch. –Thickened with egg. –Thickened with egg and starch. Bavarians, Chiffons, Mousses, and Soufflés C HIFFONS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. A mousse is any soft or creamy dessert made light and fluffy by the addition of whipped cream and/or beaten egg whites. Many kinds of bases are used for mousses. –The base may be nothing more than melted chocolate or puréed fresh fruit. –It may be more complex, like the bases for chiffons. Bavarians, Chiffons, Mousses, and Soufflés M OUSSES
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Soufflés are lightened with beaten egg whites, then baked. –Baking causes the soufflé to rise like a cake because the air in the egg foam expands when heated. To understand the structure of dessert soufflés, we can divide their preparation into four stages: 1. Base 2. Egg yolks 3. Egg whites 4. Baking Bavarians, Chiffons, Mousses, and Soufflés DESSERT SOUFFLÉS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Bavarian –Base: Custard sauce –Gelatin –Whipped cream Chiffon –Base: Starch-thickened (fruit filling type) –Egg-thickened (custard type) –Egg- and starch-thickened (pastry cream type) –Gelatin –Egg whites (optional whipped cream) Mousse –Base: Many varieties –Little or no gelatin –Egg whites and/or whipped cream Soufflé –Base: Many varieties, usually containing egg yolk –Egg whites –Baked Bavarians, Chiffons, Mousses, and Soufflés S UMMARY AND C OMPARISON
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Ice Cream –A smooth, frozen mixture of milk, cream, sugar, flavorings, and, sometimes, eggs. Philadelphia-style ice cream contains no eggs. French-style ice cream contains egg yolks. Ice milk is like ice cream, but with a lower butterfat content. Frozen yogurt contains yogurt in addition to the normal ingredients for ice cream or ice milk. F ROZEN D ESSERTS C LASSIFICATION
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Sherbet and ices are mde from fruit juices, water, and sugar. –American sherbets usually contain milk or cream and, sometimes, egg whites. –Ices contain only fruit juice, water, sugar, and, sometimes, egg whites. –The French word sorbet is sometimes used for these products. –Granité is a coarse, crystalline ice made without egg white. F ROZEN D ESSERTS CLASSIFICATION (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Still-frozen dessert –Ice cream and sherbet are churn-frozen. Churning keeps the ice crystals small and incorporates air into the ice cream. –Frozen soufflés and frozen mousses are made like chilled mousses and bavarians. Whipped cream, beaten egg whites, or both are folded in to give them lightness. This allows them to be still-frozen in an ordinary freezer. F ROZEN D ESSERTS CLASSIFICATION (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. A basic ice cream mix is simply a crème anglaise or custard sauce. –Mixed with 1 or 2 parts heavy cream for every 4 parts milk used in the sauce. –This base is then flavored as desired. When the mix has frozen, it is transferred to containers and placed in a deep-freeze at below 0ºF (–18ºC) to harden. F ROZEN D ESSERTS PRODUCTION AND QUALITY
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Smoothness is related to the size of the ice crystals in the product. Overrun: The increase in volume due to the incorporation of air when freezing ice cream. –Expressed as a percentage of the original volume of the mix. –Some overrun is necessary to give a smooth, light texture. Ice cream with too much overrun is airy and foamy and lacks flavor. Mouth feel or body depends, in part, on smoothness and overrun as well as on other qualities. F ROZEN D ESSERTS PRODUCTION AND QUALITY (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Parfaits –Made by alternating layers of ice cream and fruit or syrup in a tall, narrow glass. Sundaes or coupes –Consist of one or two scoops of ice cream or sherbet in a dish or glass topped with syrups, fruits, toppings, and garnishes. F ROZEN D ESSERTS POPULAR ICE CREAM DESSERTS
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Peach Melba –Vanilla ice cream topped with a fresh, poached, or canned peach half, napped with sweetened raspberry purée (Melba sauce), and garnished with slivered almonds. Pear Belle Hélène –Vanilla ice cream topped with a poached or canned pear half, napped with chocolate sauce, and garnished with toasted, sliced almonds. F ROZEN D ESSERTS POPULAR ICE CREAM DESSERTS (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Bombes –Ice cream molds made by lining a chilled mold with softened ice cream, freezing it hard, and then filling the center with another flavor of ice cream or sherbet and freezing it again. Meringue glacée Baked Alaska F ROZEN D ESSERTS POPULAR ICE CREAM DESSERTS (CONT’D)
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Custard sauces –Vanilla custard sauce, or crème anglaise. Fruit purées –These are simply purées of fresh or cooked fruits, sweetened with sugar. Syrups –An understanding of sugar cooking is necessary to produce many of these sauces. D ESSERT S AUCES KEY POINTS
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