Part A: Explanation and Symbolism The man representing Russia: - Is all beaten up - Is an old man - Has on beaten up clothing - Is sitting down. The man representing Japan: - Put-together - Young - Rich clothes - On stilts - Holding sign that says, “broad Concessions indemnity waived.” This shows that Russia has no money and obviously took a toll in the war. It makes Russia seem inferior to Japan as he is sitting. This shows that Japan has superiority over Russia because he is not only standing up but also on stilts. He is also smiling condescendingly at Russia because the paper in his hand makes him seem good in the eye of the world. The sign makes it seem like Japan made many sacrifices regarding the indemnity but they didn’t have enough of a clearly defined win to push it.
Part B: Time Frame and President The Russo-Japanese war took place from 1904-1905. The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed in September of 1905. The President at this time was Theodore Roosevelt.
Part C Countries Involved: U.S, Japan, Russia Motives: After years of land disputes over Manchuria between Russia and Japan, war was inevitable. Russia took control of Port Arthur for commercial and strategic significance. Japan attacked Russian fleets in Port Arthur before the declaration of war had reached Moscow, surprising them. Japan was winning, however both countries were suffering regarding finances and lives lost. Because of this, peace was pushed for.
Part C (Continued) Japan asked President Roosevelt to mediate and create peace regarding this war. Teddy Roosevelt wanted to create a compromise leaving a role for both Japan and Russia in China. He did this to protect American interest.
Part D: Effects of Interaction Results of Treaty: Control of Korea and South Manchuria, port Arthur, railway connecting regions and Southern half of Sakhalin island. Curtailed power in reigon, North half of Sakhalin island, didn’t have to pay war costs. Japan Russia
Part D (Continued) Affects: America on Japanese side, although Anti-American and Anti-treaty campaigns threw American’s off. Japan looked good in the eyes of the world and American for waiving war costs.
Part D (Continued) Protests: Both countries felt they were cheated out of assets because of the treaty. In Russia there were protests because they only got half of Sakhalin, and in Tokyo there were protests once treaty negotiations were made public. Results: Japan felt they had won the war, and President Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize. Political cartoon depicting how Russia lost its national prestige after the war.
Part E: Value and Limitations Value: This cartoon helps us understand public view of the war. Japan was viewed superior to Russia and also portrayed Japan as being understanding and compassionate by not requiring Russia to pay compensation fees. The fact that everyone recognized this shows the Progressive mindset of the world towards peace. Limitations: This cartoon is slightly mistranslated, as it doesn’t depict the fact that Japan’s victory just wasn’t decisive enough to push Russia’s payment of war costs. If Japan could, they would’ve pushed for Russia to pay compensation money for the war instead of curtailing the fees.
Part F: Justification President Theodore Roosevelt was justified in getting involved with the Russo-Japanese war because he was (1) asked to mediate a solution by the leader of Japan, and (2) protecting America’s national security and affairs, as he was afraid of the outcome if Japan had pushed Russia completely out of China.
Part A: Explanation of Image - Symbolism Uncle Sam: guarding the door, bigger than everyone else. The key saying “American Diplomacy” shows that an American Diplomat (John Hay) thought of this. Because of social Darwinism, America should have the key to China. Countries holding spheres of influence in China: The people outside the door represent the countries with spheres of influence. Germany, Russia, France, Japan have spheres. China: Chinese man in back looks happy to be influenced by the many countries.
Part B: Time Frame & President During the Interaction 1899-1900; John Hay Proposed, President McKinley was in office
Part C: Causes of Interaction Hay believed his country’s interests could be protected by Open Door for trade/commercial activity. Because the United States had no political clout and no territory in China, so non-discrimination was important. Hay first asked Britain and Japan for approval because none of them openly opposed France, Germany and Russia followed the example.
Part D: Effects of the Interaction Anti-foreign movement called the Boxer Rebellion was led by Chinese rebels. They opposed foreign presence. Hay sent a second note to the spheres of influence stressing to “protect China’s administrative and territorial integrity.” This policy was used in the future, although not binding.
Part E: Value and Limitations of the Document Value – This shows the United States’ confidence a the time makes it seem like we had the excellent idea for an open door policy. Limitations – Cartoon shows Chinese as happy, however, the Boxer Rebellion shows they’re not. The cartoon is obviously an American cartoon and has John Hay’s bias, as Uncle Sam is holding the key, implying that with popular ideals at the time of social Darwinism, Americans “should” hold the key.
Part F: Justification The U.S. was justified in creating the open door policy if we are going to judge it based on our political and international gains. John Hay wanted to establish America as a world power and in China, so sending the proposal note for the Open Door Policy was very smart. However, from China’s perspective, we had no right to establish a foreign policy for another country. Although we pushed to “protect China’s integrity,” it was all to protect China from being colonized and protect the Open Door Policy. It is clear the only motives were to help America, and it did benefit the overall image in foreign power’s eyes.