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Communism spreads in East Asia

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1 Communism spreads in East Asia
Assign Korea interactive map activity Ch 15 Sec 3 Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

2 Chiang Kai Shek (Jiang Jieshi) vs. Mao Zedong
Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

3 1949 – Rise of Communist China
In June, Jiang Jieshi defeated by Mao Oct 1, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China (PRC) Caption… "Chairman Mao is With Us Forever!” This is among the best and rarest Maoist movie poster from the late 60's. It describes Mao receiving the red guards. On right top part is a quotation of Mao saying, "You should be concerned about national affairs and follow through the cultural revolution till the end!"; in this poster, Mao is portrayed into a giant man to highlight his overwhelming power and charm over the crowds. This is the original poster of the late 1960's. Not the smaller bogus poster found on eBay. It is framed, mounted and protected with conservation glass. A stunning poster at approx. 42 x 27 inches Jiang Jieshi = Chiang Kai Shek Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

4 How the Communists Won Mao Zedong Triumphed for many reasons:
1) He won the support of the huge peasant population. 2) The Nationalist Party lost support. 3) Widespread support of Communists helped them to gain rail lines and surround Nationalist-held cities. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

5 Mao held office from 1945 to 1976 Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

6 Mao Changes Chinese Society
Mao built a communist one-party totalitarian state in the People’s Republic of China. The gov’t seized properties-both rural & urban. Opponents were killed, beaten or sent to labor camps. Remember totalitarianism… Remember Mussolini, Stalin, Hitler Caption… Rare 2-Sheet MAO Poster for People's Liberation Army "CHINESE PEOPLES LIBERATION ARMY IS ONE PEOPLES ARMY WHICH CHAIRMAN MAO FOUNDED, LEADS AND COMMANDS BY HIMSELF". Rare Two-Sheet poster designed and painted by Wu Min, produced by Tianjin Peoples Printing Factory, published by Peoples Art Publishing House, and sold by Xin Hua Bookstore, Beijing Department, May First edition, 1st printing of this massive five-foot poster, published after the death of Chairman Mao but intended to honor his memory and indicate that even now he inspires and leads the people of China. Written on the banners of the three flags towards the left top margin translates "Chinese Peasant and Workers Red Army". Two-Sheet and Three-Sheet posters were produced in China chiefly during the 1970s but are now seldom found still in their original unassembled separate sheets, complete and in relatively decent physical condition. Measurements: Measurement: 41-1/2 x 60 inches (when assembled together) Condition: Very Good Translation by Oliver Han Lei Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

7 Mao Makes Changes Con’td
W/Soviet help China built new dams and factories. Mao called for collectivization (the forced pooling of peasant land & labor) in attempt to increase productivity. Chinese caption… "Grasp Revolution, Enhance Production, Promote Work and Prepare for War" Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

8 Great Leap Forward (GLF)
Mao led a failed program called the Great Leap Forward. The goal was to increase farm & industrial output. Caption… (English translation: Agriculture needs a great leap forward. Every village needs a big harvest.) Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

9 Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward was a horrible failure-it produced low quality goods, there was no incentive & weather became a problem. 55 Million thought to have starved to death Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea


11 Cultural Revolution 1966 Mao launched the Cultural Revolution.
The goal was to purge China of “bourgeoisie” tendencies. The accused were publicly humiliated or beaten & sometimes killed. With a decline of skilled people China’s economy slows yet again… Teenagers formed the Red Guards and attacked anyone they felt were bourgeoisie. From The Better Angels of Our Nature Pinker During witch hunts and purges, people get caught up in cycles of preemptive denunciation. Everyone tries to out a hidden heretic before the heretic outs him. People in totalitarian regimes have to cultivate thoroughgoing thought control lest their true feelings betray them. Jung Chang, a former Red Guard and then a historian and memoirist of life under Mao, wrote that on seeing a poster that praised Mao's mother for giving money to the poor, she found herself quashing the heretical thought that the great leader's parents had been rich peasants, the kind of people now denounced as class enemies. Years later, when she heard a public announcement that Mao had died, she had to muster every ounce of thespian ability to pretend to cry.279 Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

12 A painting depicting Mao Zedong with the
Red Guards. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

13 The “Little Red Book” A collection of Mao’s quotations
Little gold book assignment…collection of quotations central to American democracy. Pages? Americans only…? Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

14 Catching Up Relations sour between China & USSR
United States Attempts to improve relations with China in order to isolate the USSR. We “play the China card” The People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union had been uneasy allies in the 50’s. By 1960 due to border disputes & clashes over ideology the USSR had withdrawn all aid & advisors from China. Mao and Stalin did not hit it off. 19714 Nixon visits Mao in China 1979 US sets up formal diplomatic relations Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

15 Mao vid on disc Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

16 The Korean War Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

17 Containment Containment: a policy to stop the spread of communism or to contain communism. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

18 38th Parallel When WWII ended Korea became divided at the 38th Parallel. The Soviets supplied North Korea w/tanks, airplanes & money. By 1949 both the U.S. & the S.U. had withdrawn most of their troops from Korea. Soviets thought US would not defend S. Korea Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

19 38th Parallel Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea 19

20 North Korea Attacks South Korea
June 25th, 1950 North Korea swept across the 38th Parallel into South Korea. W/in days North Korea had moved deep into South Korea. Link 25:00 Truman felt North Korean Aggressors were copying what Hitler, Mussolini, & the Japanese had done in the 1930’s. Netflix Crusade in the Pacific: America at War War in Korea War comes to the Korean Peninsula as North Korea attacks South Korea in the middle part of The U.S. is drawn into the "conflict." Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

21 Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

22 The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]
Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

23 North Korea Attacks Cont’d
The U.S. Policy of Containment was being tested South Korea asked the UN for help. 15 Nations led by MacArthur went to South Korea to help stop the invasion. Truman resolved to help South Korea resist communism. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

24 Profile: General Douglas MacArthur
Born 1880, father was successful army officer West Point, top military school Fought in WWI, 13 medals for bravery Became younger Colonel in US Army in (F) 1930: Became Chief of Staff of Army In WWII commanded allied forces in southern Pacific. Devised successful island-hopping campaign 1945: Personally accepted (J) surrender ruled (J) as commander of occupation Bullying, no-nonsense style got things done Sometimes annoyed political leaders by not following orders age 70 given command of UN forces in Korea 1951: Relieved of command for criticizing Truman’s desire to limit war in Korea Failed to get Republican nomination for ’52 election 1964: Died Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea 24

25 North Korea Advances but…
By September 1950 North Korea controlled the entire Korean peninsula except for a tiny area around Pusan in the far southeast, the “Pusan perimeter.” That same month MacArthur launched a surprise invasion.. Troops came north from Pusan and from an amphibious landing from Inchon. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

26 North Korea Retreats The amphibious landing led by MacArthur was a huge success. UN troops push all the way to the Yalu River Soldiers entering South Korea at Inchon -> Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

27 Korean War [ ] Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

28 China feels threatened!
China sends 300,000 troops into Korea Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

29 China Pushes Back The Chinese greatly outnumber the UN forces.
By Jan they pushed the UN out of Northern Korea & then captured the capital, Seoul. MacArthur called for nuclear attacks against China-Truman felt this reckless. MacArthur attempted to go over Truman’s head & went to Congress. MacArthur fired In response to MacArthur going to Congress, Truman fired him. MacArthur went out a war hero “old soldiers never die, they just fade away.” For the next two years UN forces fought to drive Chinese forces out of South Korea. By 52 the UN had regained control of South Korea. July 1953 a cease fire is signed. The border was reset at the 38th parallel. 4 million soldiers & civilians had died. Why did we really make the offer?  We already know that Clark wanted to give the Communists something to worry about while he worked out his differences with President Rhee. Is it possible that the propagandists had another motive? Time Magazine of 11 May 1953 stated “At best, the offer was designed to sow tension and mistrust among the Red flyers…there was even the possibility that, to prevent defection, the Reds might ration fuel, thus limiting the time that the MiGs can stay in the air to patrol and fight.” MiG-15                                                             F86 Sabre-Jet The MiGs had been elusive in 1953 and it was difficult to get them to come up and challenge the F-86 Sabre-Jets of the U.S.A.F. Up until the time of the Moolah offer, dogfights were fairly sporadic.  The Communists pilots usually knew their business, and if things appeared to be going badly, they would scamper toward the protection of the Yalu River. This all changed drastically after Operation Moolah. Could the sudden aggressiveness on the part of the Red pilots be due in part to the reward offer?  Although the Air Force wanted a MiG, could it be that this was not the primary purpose of the offer? Did we hope to cause a "loss of Face" by the Red pilots, as well as a purge of unreliable elements?   If the Communist Party leadership feared defections, they might ground experienced but "politically unreliable" pilots.  The result would be that only loyal Communist Party members would take to the air, regardless of their expertise. The Russians were certainly worried. They immediately jammed broadcasts in their language, although they allowed the Korean and Chinese broadcasts to pierce the Bamboo Curtain. They also grounded all their pilots to assure that no defection would occur. What was the result of the Moolah operation? The Reds grounded their air force for eight days. It might have been weather, or it might have been time needed to weed out the pilots who were liable to defect. Whatever the reason for the halt, there is no doubt that with the return of the MiGs, a new breed of pilot was behind the stick. The United States Air Force in Korea says, “They were willing to engage in combat, but they had far more enthusiasm than ability.” These were the most aggressive, and by their record, the worst flyers of the entire war. In the ninety days following the Moolah broadcasts, The Allied air forces destroyed 165 MiGs at a cost of just three friendly aircraft. Young politically correct pilots flying MiG-15s attacked repeatedly only to fall in flames before the thundering guns of American F-86 Sabre Jets. A fantastic ratio of 55:1 in favor of the Fighter aircraft of the United Nations. The Air Force has compared these aerial battles to the "Marianas Turkey Shoot" of World War Two fame where the back of Japanese naval airpower was broken. Although we shall probably never know for sure, there can be little doubt that during those brief ninety days our enemy were young Communist Party members with more political reliability than flying ability. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

30 Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea 04 26 12
Did we ever get a MiG? The answer is yes, but the pilot claimed to have never heard of the offer. On 21 September 1953, a MiG-15BIS appeared over South Korean air space.  Nobody saw the MiG-15 approaching Kimpo airbase against the flight pattern from north until after it had touched down on the runway. The defecting pilot “wagged” his wings and fired four colored flares, red, yellow, green and white, to indicate that he was friendly, in distress, and intended to land. The air base was ringed with anti-aircraft guns and he wanted to be sure that there was no mistake or thought that he was attacking the field. The Kimpo airbase radar was out for overhaul on that day. The MiG pilot spotted a half dozen F-86s on practice flights in the Kimpo's southeastern sky at slow speed but the American pilots failed to notice the MiG coming down for landing. An F-86 was landing at the same time at the other end of the runway and the two fighters passed at high speed barely avoiding a head-on collision. Five months had passed since the dropping of the "Moolah" leaflets, and not a single defecting aircraft had been delivered.  The offer had all but been forgotten, and President Eisenhower later stated that he had thought the operation cancelled after the signing of the truce in Korea. There is some doubt that the American pilots were even informed of the Moolah offer. As the North Korean pilot taxied in front of the F-86s on alert at alert pad, one pilot said that he had very nearly pulled the machine-gun trigger to destroy the MiG-15 preparing to park in front of his fighter. If he had seen the MiG-15 in the air, he would have surely shot it down. There were only Americans on the ground when the MiG pilot got out of his aircraft. There were no Korean pilots to translate for him. All the Americans could do was shake his hand and welcome the young defector. The canopy opened, and from the plane stepped a cocky young lieutenant in a blue flying suit.   While the American pilots watched in open-mouthed wonder, the Red pilot tore up a photograph of North Korean dictator Kim il-Sung, and handed his pistol to a nearby F-86 pilot in a jeep on the way to the 4th Fighter Interceptor Wing Headquarters. Early reports were that he had torn up a picture of his girlfriend, but North Korean pilots were not allowed to have girlfriends during the war. They were warned that many girls were South Korean spies. After a few moments of shock, the defector was rushed to intelligence while his MiG Fighter was placed in a well-guarded hangar. The North Korean Lieutenant, No Kum-Sok, explained his motives to the officers assigned to interrogate him.  He had been brought up in a Christian atmosphere and educated in a Catholic Mission School.  Although he had learned to shout Communist slogans and profess loyalty to the Party, he had always carried within himself the pro-western thoughts and ideals instilled during his early schooling. Many of the Russian soldiers that he had met had deepened his convictions. As a youth, they had come to his house and demanded wine at the point of a bayonet.  As the years passed, Lt. No often saw the Russian troops reeling through the streets in drunken stupor. He later stated that the average Russian infantryman was an “illiterate peasant who supplemented his small pay by looting our homes.” As a child, Rowe dreamt of becoming an American citizen. When he was accepted by the North Korean Naval Academy at age 17, He was the youngest in the academy and also the youngest North Korean jet pilot who flew in the Korean War. The day he entered the Academy he began plotting an escape to freedom. In his biography, A MiG-15 to Freedom, McFarland & Company, North Carolina and London, 1996, Lieutenant No tells how he convinced the Communists of his loyalty. I was twice decorated, with the Red Flag Medal (similar to the American “Silver Star”) and Gold Medal (similar to the American Distinguished Service Medal, given for flying 50 combat missions). I was considered an enthusiastic and inspiring young Communist…I was vice chairman of my Second Battalion Communist party, squadron commander of four jet fighters, and the only pilot in my division whose MiG bore the treasured Youth Organization Seal…All that time I was living a gigantic lie…I shouted red slogans, berated true Communists for “not hating the enemy enough,” and practiced Marxist antics with more apparent zeal than my comrades. I was the youngest Communist jet fighter pilot of the war, entering battle at the age of 19 in I believe I was younger than any American jet pilot in that war. I spoke up against American “imperialism” during air force meetings, some with the entire division of 3000 people. I became the designated officer called upon publicly to read statements from Kim il-Sung and Stalin…I was expected to make frequent denunciations, and I played the role to the hilt, even though it turned my stomach. Not even rank stood in the way of a skillful denouncer. I once denounced our chief of staff…. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

31 Peace (?) Stalemate July 1953
Armistice signed Technically, the US/UN are still fighting NK US 2nd Infantry Division still stationed on De-Militarized Zone (DMZ) on the border of the two Koreas Nov 1952: Eisenhower elected President Threatened to nuke China & North Korea Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

32 Casualties in the Korean War
Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

33 QW How does this image illustrate the negatives of communism
2 Min A very telling difference between north and south Korea. Ch 15 Sec 3 China Korea

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