Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece: Athens & Sparta. Introduction YOU ARE AN ATHENIAN! Be courteous. You have been superbly educated in the arts and the sciences, and trained."— Presentation transcript:
YOU ARE AN ATHENIAN! Be courteous. You have been superbly educated in the arts and the sciences, and trained to be extremely productive and capable in times of peace or war. You are an achiever. Until age 6 or 7, you were taught at home by your mother, or by a male slave. From age 7-14, you attended a day school in the neighborhood where you memorized Homeric poetry and learned to play that magnificent instrument, the lyre. You learned drama, public speaking, reading, writing, math, and perhaps even how to play the flute. You attended four years of higher school, and learned more about math and science and government. At 18, you attended military school for two additional years! You are proud to be an Athenian! Famed for its literature, poetry, drama, theatre, schools, buildings, government, and intellectual superiority, you have no doubt that your polis, Athens, is clearly the shining star of all the Greek city-states.
Athens: Education In ancient Athens, boys started going to school at about the age of six or seven. They had to go to three different schools – one for sport, one for music, and one for things like reading and writing. If they could afford it, a family also had a special slave called a paidagogos who would accompany their sons to all of their schools, making sure that they were safe, that they turned up and that they behaved. Paidagogoi might also help the boys with their work. If there was more than one boy in the family, then they would share one paidagogos between them. These special kinds of teachers were often very good friends to the boys they looked after. The Three Kinds of Schools Boys did physical education at the palaistra – an open field. Men trained there at the same time. You had to take all your clothes off to do any sport. At the palaistra, boys learnt javelin, discus, long jump, running, boxing and wrestling. In music lessons, boys mostly learnt the lyre, which is like a small harp. They were also taught how to sing along with the lyre. At their third school, boys learnt to read and write and to do arithmetic. They also studied literature, learning passages from poets like Homer off by heart. The poetry was mostly selected to teach the boys about right and wrong. Sometimes boys were also taught drawing and painting. The teachers could be very strict – students who misbehaved were hit with sandals!
Athenian Education continued… School Rules All of the ancient Greek schools were private and the parents had to pay fees. Parents decided how long their sons should stay at school, and that sometimes depended on how much money they had. There were no laws which said that boys had to be educated for a set number of years, and some people received no education at all. Other people only went to one or two of the three schools. The Greeks didn't agree on which school was the most important. Further Education If a young man wanted to continue his education, and if he could afford it, then he might go to a philosophical school such as the Academy set up by Plato or the Lyceum set up by Aristotle. These schools were sort of like universities. If the young man wanted to learn more practical skills he could go to a teacher, often a sophist, who would teach him to make speeches and debate. These were useful skills if you wanted to get into Athenian politics. Alternatively, you could go to a school of medicine to become a doctor. Some boys from poorer families went on to learn a trade, often from their fathers.PlatoAristotlesophist Did Girls go to School? Athenian girls were not as well educated as boys. Some of them were taught by their mothers at home, others seem to have gone to special girls' schools. Some girls may have learnt to read and write, but they were probably mostly taught how to do housework. Definitions: Sophist: a "wise man" who can teach people how to argue for anything, whether it's right or wrong.
Athenian Society & politIcs Aristocrats oligarchic governments (from oligarchy meaning government by a few). These few were the aristocrats of the city-state. From the 6th Century BC Athens had developed into a democracy (from the Greek demokratia where demos means people and kratein means to rule). Pericles, Athens' leading statesman in the 5th Century BC said (according to the historian Thucydides). "Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people." Citizens An Athenian citizen was the male child of Athenian parents. Out of a population of approximately 315,500 in 431 BC, 172,000 were citizens. Women were not included. All classes could take part in government. The lowest class, in particular benefited from the new democracy and were thus very supportive of it. Metics Metics numbered approximately 28,500 in Athens in 431 BC. They were resident aliens with no political rights. They were not allowed to own land and could not obtain citizenship. Although not possessing political rights, metics enjoyed similar privileges to citizens in some areas.
Athenian Society & Politics continued… Slaves Slaves made up the lowest class of the population. There were about 70,000 in Athens in 431 BC. They could be owned privately or by the state. Slaves came from a variety of sources; some were prisoners of war, others were unwanted children who had been exposed and left to die, children or men who had been sold into slavery for debt and still others were children who had been born into slavery. Women “The status of a woman was determined by her class.”
Athenian Economics: Occupations MALES: Athenian politicians. Doctors. Some boys from poorer families went on to learn a trade, often from their fathers. WOMEN: Archaeological and written evidence gives us information about the different occupations of women: priestesses were most respected hetairai (female companions) had the greatest social freedom women from the "better classes" have been depicted on pottery as sharing affectionate moments with their husbands and children middle-class women were occasionally able to go out to religious festivals there is little evidence on lower-class women. Written evidence seems to point to women being expected to keep a low profile and become proficient in spinning, weaving and household activities. Athenian women had no political rights, very few legal rights, limited social contact and could not even choose their husband. However, it would appear that they could show independence or spirit when the occasion arose, e.g. fifth century playwrights such as Sophocles, Aristophanes and Euripides present their heroines as assertive, independent and intelligent women. SLAVES: Privately owned slaves worked in the better class houses where many held positions of trust. These slaves were better treated than the state owned slaves. State owned slaves worked on the roads, in the dockyards, in the mint and on public buildings. The lowest class of slaves worked in the silver mines. METICS: Many were involved in trade and industry and became very wealthy. Citizens also participated in these activities and worked side by side with the metics.
Athenian Culture Poetry Homer featured people trying to live up to standards of courage and honor. Pindar wrote poems that honored sports heroes. Sappho wrote of friendship and love. Drama Poems evolved to songs and finally to drama when Thespis broke away and spoke lines on his own. Plays were a big deal to the Athenians. On opening day even prisoners were let out to attend. Tragedies The Greek tragedies were plays that showed dignity in the face of trouble. They showed how noble people could be. The Universe was governed by fate or destiny in these plays. People who were too stubborn or proud would be punished by destiny. Aeshylus, Sophocles, and Euriopides wrote some of the great tragedies. Comedies The comedies of Aristophanes and others were satires of politics and current events. History The Athenians were the first to examine history with a critical eye. Herodutus and Thucydides were some of the historians of the day. Artists and Architects Paintings and sculptures showed the ideal person. The Athenians tried to make structures fit with natural surroundings. Notice how the Parthenon seems to grow up out of the rocks.
Athenian Culture Continued… Philosophy Philosophy is the love of wisdom. The Greek philosophers started with deep-seeded questions such as: "Why are humans here?" and "How far is the universe?" Greeks looked for rational ways to explain the natural world. They believed in natural laws, many of which were wrong. Pythagorus Pythagorus believed the universe was arranged according to natural laws. He discovered the Pythagorean Theorem, the relationship between the sides of a right triangle. Hypocrites Hypocrites started a medical school and taught people to find the reason for illnesses. He separated medicine from magic. Socrates 469-399 BC Socrates never wrote anything down. He believed that it was more important to gain knowledge of human beings than to investigate nature. He thought that one should get knowledge from reason, not emotions. "The unexamined life is not worth living." He taught by having discussions in which the truth of every statement was questioned. Socrates was killed for his ideas. Plato 427 - 347 BC Plato was a student of Socrates. He believed that laws must serve the best interests of everyone. He blamed democracy for the troubles in Greece because too few had the brains to govern wisely. Plato wanted philosopher kings. Aristotle 384 - 322 BC Aristotle studied everything (plants, animals, and astronomy). He was the founder of science and biology. Aristotle analyzed speech to see what made for effective speeches.
GREECE - Geography The geography of ancient Greece had much to do with how it developed. Isolated communities developed their own systems. The water was all around them. Much of the land was hilly. The Persians were to their east and Rome to their west. The soil was not very good for agriculture. There are a lot of mountains which made travel very difficult. However, what Greece does have is a lot of coastline. There is not one part of Greece that is more than 40 miles from the coast. Beaches are beautiful and plentiful in Greece. For this reason, there were many sailors in Greek history. Fishing was (and is) common as well as trade. Also, Greece is in a very unstable environment. There are many volcanoes and earthquakes are common due to the tectonic plates in the earth beneath the Greece landscape.
YOU ARE A SPARTAN! Be proud! You have endured unbelievable pain and hardship to become a superior Spartan soldier and citizen! Taken away from your parents at age 7, you lived a harsh and often brutal life in the soldiers barracks. You were beaten by older children who started fights to help make you tough and strong. You were often were whipped in front of groups of other Spartans, including your parents, but never cried out in pain. You were given very little food, but encouraged to steal food, instead. If caught stealing, you were beaten. To avoid severe pain, you learned to be cunning, to lie, to cheat, to steal, and how to get away with it! Some of you are members of the Spartan secret police and enjoy spying on slaves. If you find a slave who is showing signs of leadership, you have orders to kill them immediately. You are fierce, capable, and proud of your strength. You know you are superior and are delighted to be Spartan!
Sparta: Education In Sparta, life was very different. There, education was mostly aimed at creating good soldiers, because every male citizen had to serve in the army for most of his life. Citizen boys had to leave home and join the army at the age of only seven. They were forced to live a hard life all together in barracks with only a mat on the floor for a bed. They were only allowed one cloak each year to wear and they were not allowed to have shoes. They were encouraged to steal food so that they would be able to steal when they were on campaign with the army. But if they got caught stealing food, they would be beaten. Sometimes, they were beaten just in order to toughen them up. They were also taught basic reading and writing and to play music, but physical education was considered the most important thing. Citizen girls also received a state education in Sparta. They lived in special girls' barracks. We do not know whether these were as harsh as the boys' barracks. Much of their education was also physical education, as it was believed that it was necessary for mothers to be strong in order for them to have strong children. But it was also considered important to teach girls music and dancing.
Sparta: Society and Politics Every stage of Spartan life was planned. They wanted strong, fearless warriors. Men were trained to be warriors. Sickly babies were left outside to die. People had to bring newborn babies to the government for the government to decide if the baby lived or died. From ages seven to thirty men were required to be in the military. They were taught discipline, strengthened their bodies, learned bravery and endured pain (barefoot in winter, broken bones, etc.). Death in battle was the highest honor, they were taught to never give up. Spartans were expected to marry by age 20, but the polis was more important than family. At a Spartan Marriage a woman's hair was cropped and she dressed like a boy. The ceremony was followed by a simulated rape. The couple did not live together; he continued to live in the boys' dorm, and ate in messes with other men. Polis gave aristocrats land, and helots to farm it. Men retired at 60, but most continued helping the government or taught in military schools. Women managed farms and households. They had to be healthy to produce good warriors so they wrestled, boxed, and raced against men. Women had more freedoms than in other societies.
Sparta: Society and Politics continued… Oligarchy, a council of old men and five magistrates. Two kings had special military powers. The Spartans became a society of brave warriors, but too one sided. In the 8th century BC, the Spartans conquered the "helots" (farm laborers). The helots worked for the polis, not for the landowners. Since the helots outnumbered the Spartans 10 to 1, the Spartans built a powerful army to guard against an uprising.
Sparta - Economics: Occupations Military – Warriors Sparta remained agricultural and there was no commercial class. They never used money, only an iron currency for internal use.
Sparta: Culture They did not develop arts, trading, literature, etc. They all dressed the same and ate at communal masses. Spartans had one goal - to be militarily strong. They were very much into sports. Tried to stay isolated (didn’t like the army to be away because they feared the helots would rebel.)
Sparta: Geography Area of 3200 square miles. SPARTA