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Civil Rights. Civil Rights Vocabulary 1. Segregation 2. Plessey v Ferguson 3. Jim Crow Laws 4. Brown v Board of Education 5. “Little Rock 9” 6. Rosa Parks.

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Presentation on theme: "Civil Rights. Civil Rights Vocabulary 1. Segregation 2. Plessey v Ferguson 3. Jim Crow Laws 4. Brown v Board of Education 5. “Little Rock 9” 6. Rosa Parks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Civil Rights

2 Civil Rights Vocabulary 1. Segregation 2. Plessey v Ferguson 3. Jim Crow Laws 4. Brown v Board of Education 5. “Little Rock 9” 6. Rosa Parks 7. NAACP 8. Martin Luther King, Jr. 9. SCLC 10. SNCC 11. Sit-ins 12. Children’s Crusade 13. George Wallace 14. Medgar Evers 15. March on Washington Civil Rights Act Freedom Summer 18. Voting Rights Act De facto Segregation 20. De jure segregation 21. Malcolm X 22. Nation of Islam 23. Stokely Carmichael 24. Black Panthers

3 In the Beginning….. Declaration of Independence Declaration of Independence “All Men are Created Equal” “All Men are Created Equal” Citizens have certain fundamental rights: Citizens have certain fundamental rights: Right to Vote A struggle for some groups A struggle for some groups

4 1791-Bill of Rights 1791-Bill of Rights 10 amendments added to the Constitution Constitution th amendment th amendment “Equal protection of the law” “Equal protection of the law” Right to vote for all males who were 21 years old (This was later changed) Right to vote for all males who were 21 years old (This was later changed)BUT…..

5 African Americans and other groups would struggle for the next 100 years to claim their full rights!

6 Segregation Definition: The separation of people on the basis of race. Definition: The separation of people on the basis of race. Plessy V Ferguson: An 1890 case that ruled “separate but equal” did not violate the 14 th Amendment Plessy V Ferguson: An 1890 case that ruled “separate but equal” did not violate the 14 th Amendment Effects: Jim Crow laws, separate schools, restrooms, elevators etc. Effects: Jim Crow laws, separate schools, restrooms, elevators etc.

7 Challenging Segregation Brown V. Board of Education 1954 Brown V. Board of Education 1954 Linda Brown was denied admission to an all white school 4 blocks away from her home. She had to attend an all black school 21 blocks away. Linda Brown was denied admission to an all white school 4 blocks away from her home. She had to attend an all black school 21 blocks away.

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9 Supreme Court Ruling: Supreme Court Ruling: Unanimously struck down segregation as unconstitutional Chief Justice Earl Warren: Chief Justice Earl Warren: “…Separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” “…Separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”

10 Consequences Brown case affected 12 million school children. Brown case affected 12 million school children. Some states opposed: Some states opposed: Georgia says ….”permanent segregation of all races” Georgia says ….”permanent segregation of all races” Court says “must desegregate with all deliberate speed” Court says “must desegregate with all deliberate speed”

11 Little Rock Nine African American students volunteered to integrate Little Rock Central High School. 9 African American students volunteered to integrate Little Rock Central High School. Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus ordered National Guard to turn them away. Arkansas Governor Orville Faubus ordered National Guard to turn them away. Judge ordered Faubus to let students in. Judge ordered Faubus to let students in.

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13 What Happened? Eisenhower ordered National Guard under Federal control. Eisenhower ordered National Guard under Federal control. The nine students were escorted by soldiers. The nine students were escorted by soldiers. Faubus ordered school to shut down rather than let integration continue! Faubus ordered school to shut down rather than let integration continue!

14 Montgomery Bus Boycott Dec Dec Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of the bus. Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of the bus. She was arrested She was arrested But her arrest was exactly what the movement needed….. But her arrest was exactly what the movement needed…..

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16 What Happened? NAACP organized a boycott of the city buses. NAACP organized a boycott of the city buses. Led by Martin Luther King Jr. Led by Martin Luther King Jr. Non-violent protest Non-violent protest Boycott lasted 381 days Boycott lasted 381 days 1956-Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation 1956-Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation

17 Martin Luther King Jr. Young Baptist minister Young Baptist minister Based his ideas on several people Based his ideas on several people Jesus=love one’s enemies Jesus=love one’s enemies Thoreau=refuse to obey an unjust Thoreau=refuse to obey an unjust law (civil disobedience) law (civil disobedience) Gandhi=resist oppression by Gandhi=resist oppression by peaceful means peaceful means

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19 SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Purpose was to carry on “non violent crusades” Purpose was to carry on “non violent crusades” MLK Jr. helped organize it MLK Jr. helped organize it Planned to stage protests and demonstrations in South. Planned to stage protests and demonstrations in South.

20 SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Agreed with SCLC and MLK but wanted change more rapidly Agreed with SCLC and MLK but wanted change more rapidly Organized Sit-ins: protesters sit down at white only lunch counters and refused to leave until they were served Organized Sit-ins: protesters sit down at white only lunch counters and refused to leave until they were served

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22 1960- staged a sit-in at a Woolworths in Greensboro, NC staged a sit-in at a Woolworths in Greensboro, NC Was televised nationally Was televised nationally Led to more sit-ins across the South and eventually led to desegregation of diners. Led to more sit-ins across the South and eventually led to desegregation of diners.

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25 Freedom Riders Interstate bus facilities were segregated in the South SNCC volunteers rode into Birmingham, AL They were pulled off and beaten-1961 Next stop: Montgomery AL

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28 What Happened? Arrived in Montgomery to a mob of whites Arrived in Montgomery to a mob of whites Riders were beaten with bats and lead pipes Riders were beaten with bats and lead pipes Kennedy responded by sending in Federal Marshalls to protect riders in Jackson, Mississippi Kennedy responded by sending in Federal Marshalls to protect riders in Jackson, Mississippi Interstate Facilities were desegregated! Interstate Facilities were desegregated!

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30 Birmingham, AL Known for total segregation Known for total segregation King decides to test power of King decides to test power of non violence-April 12, 1963 non violence-April 12, st demonstration-King arrested by Police commissioner Bull Connor

31 Letter from Birmingham Jail …..when you have seen hate filled policeman curse, kick and brutalize and even kill your black brothers and sisters…when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in the air tight cage of poverty; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old asking:…… …..when you have seen hate filled policeman curse, kick and brutalize and even kill your black brothers and sisters…when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in the air tight cage of poverty; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old asking:……

32 ‘ Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?’….then you will find it difficult to wait.” MLK, Jr.

33 Children’s Crusade 2 nd demonstration in Birmingham - May 2 2 nd demonstration in Birmingham - May 2 Over 1000 children marched Over 1000 children marched Connor arrested 959 of them! Connor arrested 959 of them! 3 rd demonstration on May 3 rd televised nationally 3 rd demonstration on May 3 rd televised nationally Police swept marchers off their feet with high pressure hoses, set attack dogs on them, clubbed marchers Police swept marchers off their feet with high pressure hoses, set attack dogs on them, clubbed marchers

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38 Demonstrators huddled in a doorway seek shelter from the hoses. The water is propelled at a force of one hundred pounds per square inch.

39 After being hit from behind and being knocked down by the hoses, a woman is picked up and rescued by a witness

40 A police wrestles with a 5 year old boy for the American Flag!

41 Kennedy Responds “ Are we to say to the world-and much more importantly to each other-that this is the land of the free, except for the Negroes?”

42 George Wallace responds….. Governor of Alabama Governor of Alabama “I say, Segregation Now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation Forever!” “I say, Segregation Now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation Forever!”

43 Racial tensions increase…. Medgar Evers Medgar Evers NAACP field secretary NAACP field secretary WWII veteran WWII veteran Murdered by a sniper in Mississippi Murdered by a sniper in Mississippi White Supremacist arrested but was released after hung juries. White Supremacist arrested but was released after hung juries. In February 1994, nearly 31 years after Evers' death, Beckwith was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. He died in January 2001 at the age of 80. In February 1994, nearly 31 years after Evers' death, Beckwith was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. He died in January 2001 at the age of 80.

44 March on Washington August 28, 1963 August 28, 1963 People demanded the immediate passage of a Civil Rights bill People demanded the immediate passage of a Civil Rights bill King-”I Have a Dream” speech King-”I Have a Dream” speech Largest demonstration in U.S up to that time. Largest demonstration in U.S up to that time.

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46 Civil Rights Acts of 1964 Johnson signed the bill Johnson signed the bill Prohibits discrimination Prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender because of race, religion, national origin, and gender

47 Signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by President Lyndon B. Johnson as Martin Luther King Jr. looks on

48 Freedom Summer Wanted to influence Congress to pass a voting rights act Wanted to influence Congress to pass a voting rights act More than a 1000 volunteers took on the challenge to register voters. More than a 1000 volunteers took on the challenge to register voters. Increased violence: 4 deaths, 4 critically wounded, 80 beaten and many churches bombed and burned Increased violence: 4 deaths, 4 critically wounded, 80 beaten and many churches bombed and burned

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50 Bloody Sunday Response to a killing of a demonstrator Response to a killing of a demonstrator March led by King is from Selma, AL to Montgomery, AL March led by King is from Selma, AL to Montgomery, AL More than 50 miles More than 50 miles March 7, 1965 March 7, 1965 More than 600 protestors More than 600 protestors

51 What Happened? Televised nationally Televised nationally Police tear gassed marchers Police tear gassed marchers Beaten with clubs and whipped Beaten with clubs and whipped In response, another march was planned In response, another march was planned This time over 50,000 people showed up! This time over 50,000 people showed up!

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59 So what? 10 weeks after Selma march the Voting Rights Act was passed! 10 weeks after Selma march the Voting Rights Act was passed! But But The long term effects of segregation and discrimination were starting to take its toll! The long term effects of segregation and discrimination were starting to take its toll!

60 Leaders who called for peace were now challenged with increasing violence.

61 Seeking Equality De facto segregation-exists by practice and custom De facto segregation-exists by practice and custom Harder to fight Harder to fight Difficult for whites to share economic and social power Difficult for whites to share economic and social power De jure segregation- segregation by law. De jure segregation- segregation by law.

62 Effects White flight-whites moved to suburbs White flight-whites moved to suburbs African Americans trapped in slums, detoriating schools. African Americans trapped in slums, detoriating schools. Unemployment increased Unemployment increased Led to anger, resentment impatience, and Violence Led to anger, resentment impatience, and Violence

63 Urban Violence Harlem-Race riots Harlem-Race riots Los Angeles-In Watts, police arrested a young man for driving drunk and argument began. (1965) Los Angeles-In Watts, police arrested a young man for driving drunk and argument began. (1965) Riot lasted 6 days. Riot lasted 6 days. 34 people died 34 people died Cost of 30 million dollars Cost of 30 million dollars

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66 Whites were baffled! Whites were baffled! Leaders realized they needed economic equality, opportunity in jobs, housing, and education Leaders realized they needed economic equality, opportunity in jobs, housing, and education But Vietnam overshadowed Civil Rights! But Vietnam overshadowed Civil Rights!

67 Malcolm X Advocated pride in the identity of African Americans Advocated pride in the identity of African Americans Preached whites were the cause of the conditions blacks were in and should separate themselves from the white society. Preached whites were the cause of the conditions blacks were in and should separate themselves from the white society. Armed self defense Armed self defense

68 Ballots vs. Bullets Pilgrammage to Mecca changed his way of thinking. Pilgrammage to Mecca changed his way of thinking. “Well, if you and I don’t use a ballot, were going to be forced to use the bullet. So let us try the ballot.” “Well, if you and I don’t use a ballot, were going to be forced to use the bullet. So let us try the ballot.”

69 Malcolm X Feb. 21, 1965 was shot and killed. Feb. 21, 1965 was shot and killed. He was 39 years old He was 39 years old

70 Nation of Islam Religious organization Religious organization Led by Elijah Mohammed Led by Elijah Mohammed It strives for freedom, Justice and equality for blacks. It strives for freedom, Justice and equality for blacks. Malcolm X was a follower of this religious organization Malcolm X was a follower of this religious organization

71 Black Power Stokey Carmichael of SNCC Stokey Carmichael of SNCC SNCC & CORE members becoming militant SNCC & CORE members becoming militant “A call for black people to begin to define their own goals….and to lead their own organizations.” “A call for black people to begin to define their own goals….and to lead their own organizations.” King urged him to stop for fear it would lead to more violence King urged him to stop for fear it would lead to more violence

72 Black Pride Mexico City, 1968 Mexico City, 1968 Olympics Olympics African American athletes performed ”Power to the People” salute as a political statement. African American athletes performed ”Power to the People” salute as a political statement.

73 Black Panthers Political Party formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale Political Party formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale Preached armed revolt (Mao Zedong) Preached armed revolt (Mao Zedong) “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun” “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun”

74 Goals To fight police brutality To fight police brutality Take control of African Americans communities Take control of African Americans communities Exemption of blacks into military service. Exemption of blacks into military service.

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76 Support in the Ghettos Established Daycare centers Established Daycare centers Free breakfast programs Free breakfast programs Free medical clinics Free medical clinics Assistance to homeless Assistance to homeless

77 Dr. King’s Death His last speech in Memphis to support sanitary workers. His last speech in Memphis to support sanitary workers. “I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the promised land.” “I may not get there with you, but I want you to know tonight that we as a people will get to the promised land.”

78 King’s Death April 4, 1968, King was shot and killed by James Earl Ray. April 4, 1968, King was shot and killed by James Earl Ray.

79 Rage over King’s death erupted into the worst riots ever in 125 cities. Rage over King’s death erupted into the worst riots ever in 125 cities.

80 Issued a report that concluded the nation was moving towards being black and white Issued a report that concluded the nation was moving towards being black and white Called for the creation of new jobs, new housing and end de facto segregation Called for the creation of new jobs, new housing and end de facto segregation Johnson admin. ignored report because of white opposition Johnson admin. ignored report because of white opposition Kerner Commission

81 Gains End of de jure segregation End of de jure segregation Civil Rights Act of 1968 Civil Rights Act of 1968 Greater pride in racial identity Greater pride in racial identity Desegregation of educational facilities Desegregation of educational facilities Political gains such as increase in voters and African American leaders Political gains such as increase in voters and African American leaders


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