21.What court case confirmed the legality of racial segregation? PLESSY vs. FERGUSON- 1896Supreme Court ruled that segregation was not Unconstitutional.Created Separate but Equal
3“Separate But Equal Doctrine” 2. What court case overturned the “Separate but Equal Doctrine?”“Separate But Equal Doctrine”Made African-Americans 2nd class citizensEtiquette of proper race relations developedHad to address whites as Mr. and Mrs.Blacks addressed as “boy” and “girl”Black couldn’t challenge whitesOverturned by the Brown Vs. Board of Education court case
4Brown v. Board of Education May 17, 1954 3. Who argued the Brown Vs. Board case to the Supreme Court?Brown v. Board of Education May 17, 1954Thurgood Marshall was the NAACP lawyer who brought the case before the Supreme CourtThe Supreme Court reversed the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of “Separate but Equal”Court stated that Segregated schools were found to be inferior because it stigmatized African-AmericansSouth refused to integrate.
54. How did Emmett Till Bring national attention to racial discrimination in the South? Emmett Till –August 1955Visiting relatives in Mississippi from ChicagoWhistled at a white womanWas found beaten and thrown in the river by her husband and a friend.Funeral was televised- brought national attention to racial discrimination in the SouthAt the trial an all white jury found the two men not guiltyThe freedoms in the North for African Americans did not extend into the South.
6Montgomery, Alabama- December 1955 5. What event helped spark the Montgomery bus boycott?Montgomery, Alabama- December 1955Rosa Parks- refuses to give up her seat to a white personMontgomery Improvement Association beganSelected Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. as PresidentAdvocated non-violent philosophy (Passive resistance)NAACP boycott the buses in Montgomery AL.
7Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)-1957 6. Who felt the path to equal rights was nonviolent protests?Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)-1957President Martin Luther King Jr.Believed the path to equal rights was to carry on nonviolent protests against the evils of second class citizenshipStaged protests and demonstrations throughout the South.
8Little Rock High School-September 1957 7. Which president ordered soldiers to protect black students integrating Little Rock H.SLittle Rock High School-September 1957Governor of Arkansas used National Guard to prevent 9 black students from enrolling in Little Rock’s Central High SchoolEisenhower placed National Guard under federal control and sent the soldiers to Little Rock to allow the 9 students to attend
10Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) 8. What is a sit- in?Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)Greensboro, North Carolina- February 1960African American students sat at the whites only lunch counter in WoolworthsTelevision crews televised the event showing the students being beaten, jeered at and having food poured on themNew way to protest- “sit-in”Students from all over the south began copying this technique.
119. What was the goal of the freedom riders? Freedom Riders-May 1961Historic bus ride by African Americans across the South to test the Supreme Court decision banning segregation on interstate bus routes and terminalsRiders were beaten by whites waiting for them as they pulled into each terminalNewspapers throughout the nation denounced the beatings and riders wanted to test the Supreme Court decision to outlaw segregation on interstate bus routes.It was exactly the response the Freedom Riders wanted
12The Desegregation of Birmingham Alabama-1963 10. What caused Birmingham Alabama to desegregate?The Desegregation of Birmingham Alabama-1963The Most segregated City in AmericaMLK and the SCLC came to demonstrateFriday April 12th, King and others were arrestedMay 2nd, thousands of teens came to march on BirminghamPolice used fire hoses, attack dogs, and clubbed and arrested 959 of the children.The television cameras captured it allBirmingham officials were forced to end segregation
13March on Washington- Aug. 28, 1963 11. Where did Dr. King deliver his “I Have A Dream” Speech?March on Washington- Aug. 28, 1963250,000 gathered at the Lincoln MemorialBlack and White marchers protested against segregated facilitiesDr. King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”Two Months later Kennedy is assassinated
1412. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplish? Two months after Kennedy’s assassination, Johnson pledged to carry on his work on civil rights legislationPresident Lyndon B. Johnson pushed The Civil Rights Act of through CongressEliminated “whites only” public facilities
15Mississippi Summer Project 13. What happened to some whites who came to Mississippi to register black voters?Mississippi Summer ProjectWhite volunteers came to work in MississippiPresence brought national attention3 volunteers- 2 white, 1 black turn up missingWere on their way to investigate a church bombing in MississippiMurdered by KKK and law enforcement personnel
16Militant Black Consciousness 14. What was Malcolm X exposed to in prison that changed his life?Militant Black ConsciousnessMalcolm X (Malcolm Little)Grew up in povertyLost hope in that he could succeed in a white societyEnded up in jailWhile in jail he was exposed to the teaching of the Nation of Islam
17Militant Black Consciousness 15. How did MLK’s philosophy differ from Malcolm X on gaining civil rights?Militant Black ConsciousnessUrged blacks to separate from white societyWanted to use force, instead of passive resistance1964- Quit The Nation of Islam over differences in strategy and doctrine and formed Organization of Afro-American Unity1965- assassinated while giving a speech in New York
18Militant Black Consciousness 16. Name the Civil rights leader who became impatient with non-violence and called for black power.Militant Black ConsciousnessMembers of Nation of Islam convicted of Malcolm X’s murderStokely Carmichael became impatient with non-violence and started the rise of “Black Power”Became the battle cry for militant civil right activistsStokelyCarmichaelBlack PowerRanger
19Militant Black Consciousness 17. Why was MLK against The Black Panther Party?Militant Black ConsciousnessBlack Panther PartyGoal: gain political office for African-Americans throughout the SouthMilitant in demands for “land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace”.King very critical of black militant groups- thought it weakened support of Whites
20Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated 18. What happened after MLK was assassinated?Martin Luther King Jr. AssassinatedApril 4, assassinated in MemphisLed to a new wave of urban violence and worst rioting in historyPoverty still remained high among African-Americans even though segregation had ended.
21Legacy Of The Civil Rights Movement Created legal protection for the civil rights of all AmericansMore African Americans finishing school and going to collegeAfrican Americans having greater pride in their racial identityAfrican Americans began to appear more frequently in movies and filmThe number of African Americans in political office significantly increased