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HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF BOYS? Risk factors of girl delinquency September, 2008 European Society of Criminology Thessa Wong Annemarie Slotboom.

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Presentation on theme: "HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF BOYS? Risk factors of girl delinquency September, 2008 European Society of Criminology Thessa Wong Annemarie Slotboom."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF BOYS? Risk factors of girl delinquency September, 2008 European Society of Criminology Thessa Wong Annemarie Slotboom Catrien Bijleveld VU University Amsterdam

2 Overview risk factors girl delinquency Comparison with boys – within studies Review Purpose

3 Review Studies 26 studies 12 countries: The Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, Great Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Hungary All studies from 1982 till now

4 Review Criteria studies Risk factors of girl delinquency Delinquent or criminal behaviour Age: Non-delinquent girls as a control group

5 Review Results Individual factors Family factors Peer factors School factors

6 Review Individual factors Victimization Negative life events Self-esteem (positively and negatively) Aggression Obedience Intelligence Depression (suicidal behaviour) Substance use Attitude delinquency

7 Review Individual factors Compared with boys Unique factors:  Amount of negative life events  Obedience  Suicidal behaviour

8 Review Family factors Criminal father Delinquent siblings Beaten by parents Parental monitoring Permissive parenting Child disclosure Being seldom at home Rules at home Parental trust Conflicts at home Quality of parent-child relationship Maternal support

9 Review Family factors Compared with boys Unique factors:  Permissive parenting styles (father and mother)  Being seldom at home  Beaten by parents  Quality of sibling relationship  Maternal support  Quality of mother-child relationship

10 Review Family factors Compared with boys Remarkable:  Role of mother  Single parenthood

11 Review Peer factors Delinquent friends Gangmembership Being in a romantic relationship Parents dislike friends

12 Review Peer factors Compared with boys Not many differences Cross-sex friends

13 Review School factors Grades Attachment Commitment Quality of relationship with teachers

14 Review School factors Compared with boys Remarkable:  School achievement  School attachment and commitment

15 Review Conclusion difference girls/boys It seems that girls and boys do not differ a lot in their risk factors to become delinquent Differences girls/boys appear when distinguished between:  Different types of delinquency  Example: empathy (Jollife & Farrington, 2007)  Different domains of factors  Example: self-esteem (Van de Schoot & Wong, forthcoming)

16 Review Beperkingen studies Only 26 studies Not many longitudinal studies Delinquent girls are often seen as if they are one group Remarkable: little overlap between studied risk factors


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