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What children say Comparative research on corporal punishment of children in eight countries Judith Ennew ©

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1 What children say Comparative research on corporal punishment of children in eight countries Judith Ennew ©

2 Process and methods

3 Adult-centred research on corporal punishment  Counts smacks  Concentrates on hitting  Interviews parents  Interested in injuries  Medical tests  Interested in outcomes  Psychometric tests

4 Rights-based research with children   Article 12: Opinion   Article 13: Modes of expression   Article 3a: Standards   Article 36: Other forms of exploitation Children have the right to be right to be properly researched

5 Children as research partners

6 Take any community

7 Before, we only asked men

8 Then we began to ask women

9 Now we are beginning to ask children too The picture is complete!

10 Children and adults have different perspectives on corporal punishment  Children describe more kinds of punishment  Children define many kinds of punishment as abuse  Adults are more interested in outcomes than in abuse of rights  – or how much it hurts now

11 ‘Corporal punishment’ includes  Direct assaults, with or without an implement  Indirect assaults (pinching, pulling…)  Indirect assaults (forced tasks or exercises)  Deliberate neglect used as punishment  Use of external substances (water, smoke)  Hazardous tasks  Confinement  Threats  Verbal assaults, humiliation and assaults on dignity Save the Children definition


13 Research teams  Save the Children and local partners  Children among the stakeholders Regional coordinator RSTM 3 teams RSTM 3 teams RSTM 3 teams

14 Regional sample MaleFemaleTotal Children 857 (46%) 1,008 (54%) 3322 (100%) Adults 322 (35%) 611 (65%) 306 (100%) Total 1,179 (41%) 1,650 (59%) 4,354 (100%)

15 Twelve steps for research Step 1: Identify stakeholders and the research team Step 2: Define research aims and main research questions Step 3: Collect, review and analyse secondary data Step 4 Detailed research questions Step 5 Research tools Step 6 Research plan Step 7 First data collection Step 8 First analysis Step 9 Second data collection Step 10 Analysis Step 11 Research report Step 12 Use iinformation Level 1 Preparation Level 2 Protocol design Level 3 Data collection Level 4 Analysis and writing Level 5 Follow-up

16 What is a protocol?   A data collection manual containing   Research questions   Research plan   Ethical strategy   Standard observation sheet   Research tools and all necessary materials

17 Core regional research tools  Researcher’s diary  Drawing and discussion  Body map and discussion  Ranking  Attitude survey  Sentence completion  Diary/recall  Protection shield/umbrella/jacket

18 Regional comparisons Tool Number of countries between which comparisons were possible Attitude survey 8 Body map 7 Ranking (after either drawings or body maps) 7 Protection tool 8 (six analysed) Drawings (two variants) 6 Sentence completion 5 (not all analysed)

19 ‘What children say’ The results

20  We are dependent on you to love and teach us. Please don’t confuse us and hurt us in the name of discipline  Treat us with courtesy and respect, if you want us to respect and obey you  Be good role models, so that we can learn from what you do as well as from what you say  Manage your anger, don’t use us as easy targets for venting your frustration about your problems  Remember how punishment hurt you as children, and try to find ways of dealing with your pain by teaching us it is wrong to hurt other people, whatever the reason  Sometimes we have good ideas, because we know the realities of our lives, please make it easy for us to tell you  Discipline us softly, taking time to explain what you want us to do, and to listen to what we say.

21 Direct physical assault  The most common punishment  With an implement  Violent bodily contact (kicking/punching)

22 ‘Verbal attack’  Second most common –Includes  Scolding  Yelling  Swearing  Humiliating Little recognition of emotional punishment

23 Brutal physical assault  Beaten on buttocks till raw, then salt and chilli rubbed in  Electrocuted  Forced to kneel/stand on spiky skin of durian fruit  Forced to stand naked outside house  Forced to stand under heavy weight of bullock yoke  Head repeatedly submerged in water  Hung on a tree, wall, electricity pole and beaten until unconscious  Tied next to an ants’ nest  Tied to bicycle or motorbike and forced to run, or be dragged, alongside A far higher degree of assault than found in previous surveys

24  Children did not say that gentle/loving smacking is the main form of physical punishment  or even that it is used at all

25 More violent punishment in homes than in schools

26 Parents and teachers punish  Mothers at least as much as fathers  Patterns according to age and gender

27 Age and gender patterns  Direct assaults more common on younger children, especially boys  Indirect assaults and hazardous tasks increased by age 14  Older girls more likely to be hit than older boys  Verbal assaults always more likely for girls

28 Factors influencing type and severity of punishment  Age  Gender  Power relationships  Location norms  Means available

29  Parents do know about alternatives  They do not use them

30 Conflicting thoughts, feelings and actions  Adult cognitive dissonance  Mother loves me, mother beats me  The hit-hurt learning process

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