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The African American Struggle for Civil Rights. Big Six Philip Randolph- socialist that challenged FDR Philip Randolph- socialist that challenged FDR.

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Presentation on theme: "The African American Struggle for Civil Rights. Big Six Philip Randolph- socialist that challenged FDR Philip Randolph- socialist that challenged FDR."— Presentation transcript:

1 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights

2 Big Six Philip Randolph- socialist that challenged FDR Philip Randolph- socialist that challenged FDR John Farmer – founder of CORE John Farmer – founder of CORE Ray Wilkins- director of NAACP in the 50s Ray Wilkins- director of NAACP in the 50s MLK – leader of SCLC MLK – leader of SCLC John Lewis- SNCC president John Lewis- SNCC president Whitney Young- leader of the National Urban League Whitney Young- leader of the National Urban League

3 Leading to the Civil Rights Movement Truman Truman Desegregate military Desegregate military Add civil rights to Democratic program Add civil rights to Democratic program Larger urban black middle class Larger urban black middle class Discrimination in the U.S hurt the propaganda against Communists Discrimination in the U.S hurt the propaganda against Communists Black veterans in WWII fought racism aboard, dedicated to fight at home Black veterans in WWII fought racism aboard, dedicated to fight at home Not share in postwar prosperity Not share in postwar prosperity Symbolic breakthrough Symbolic breakthrough Jackie Robinson (1947) Jackie Robinson (1947) Jackie Robinson

4 Emmett Till

5 Court Cases Smith v Allwright (1944) Smith v Allwright (1944) Attack “separate but equal” Attack “separate but equal” Brown v Board of Education of Topeka (1954) Brown v Board of Education of Topeka (1954) Southern Manifesto Southern Manifesto Thurgood Marshall Mrs. Brown and Linda Brown

6 Black Activism From the courts to the streets From the courts to the streets integrate interstate integrate interstate Montg. intrastate Montg. intrastate Claudette Colvin Irene Morgan Rosa Parks

7 CRM Non violence, Civil disobedience, Integration Non violence, Civil disobedience, Integration SCLC, SNCC, CORE SCLC, SNCC, CORE Social- Integration in schools, later other places. Gains- CRA 64 Social- Integration in schools, later other places. Gains- CRA 64 Montg Bus Boycott (SCLC), Greensboro (SNCC), Freedom Rides (CORE), Little Rock Nine, Meredith, Wade ins, Sleep ins, Birmingham demo (SCLC), March on Washington (SCLC- to pass CRA 64) Montg Bus Boycott (SCLC), Greensboro (SNCC), Freedom Rides (CORE), Little Rock Nine, Meredith, Wade ins, Sleep ins, Birmingham demo (SCLC), March on Washington (SCLC- to pass CRA 64) Political- Voting. Gains- Voting Rights Act; 24 th Amendment Political- Voting. Gains- Voting Rights Act; 24 th Amendment Freedom Summer (CORE), Selma March (SCLC) Freedom Summer (CORE), Selma March (SCLC)

8 A Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?

9 Change in Movement 4 Little Girls (1963) 4 Little Girls (1963) No gains made in CRM for Northern blacks economically No gains made in CRM for Northern blacks economically FYI “Each time the people…saw Martin Luther King get slapped, they became angry; when they saw four little black girls bombed to death, they were angrier; and when nothing happened, they were steaming. We had nothing to offer that they could see, except to go out and be beaten again. We helped to build their frustration.” - Stokely Carmichael Old Movement: South, voter registration and segregation. New Movement: North, poverty, unemployment, housing, police brutality Medgar Evers

10 Characteristics of the BPM Militancy Militancy Riots Riots Separatism Separatism Black Pride and Political and Economic Empowerment Black Pride and Political and Economic Empowerment Afros, dashikis, “black names” Afros, dashikis, “black names” Adopting term “black” Adopting term “black” “Say it loud- I’m black and I’m proud!” -James Brown

11 Major Leaders Stokely Carmichael (SNCC) Stokely Carmichael (SNCC) Switched from non violent tactics Switched from non violent tactics Huey Malcolm

12 Riots Kerner Report White racism to blame for rioting De facto segregation still exists U.S becoming “two societies, one black, one white- separate and unequal” Govt. not address social and economic needs Unless, implement govt. programs riots will continue The Long Hot Summer WATTS Detroit

13 Malcolm X Assassination 1965

14 MLK Assassination 1968

15 Summary: Let’s Break It Down Reconstruction Social Black Codes, 13 th and 14 th Amendment, Jim Crow, Plessy, lynching, lack of education Economic 40 acres and a mule, sharecrop, tenant, lack of land redistribution Political 15 th Amendment, poll tax, literacy test, grandfather clause, Force Act (weak) Changes? Troops and executive branch executes Still, can’t change mindset Assassinations, bombings, Kerner Report, de facto segregation One more shot by govt Great Society, War on Poverty, affirmative action

16 Women’s Movement NOW NOW Goals: Goals: Equal pay, Protection from discrimination, Legalization of abortion Equal pay, Protection from discrimination, Legalization of abortion Gains Gains Roe v Wade Roe v Wade Title IX (CRA 64) Title IX (CRA 64) Prohibits discrimination in school Prohibits discrimination in school Girl sports; integrated sports Girl sports; integrated sports Still… Still… No Equal pay No Equal pay “Glass Ceiling” “Glass Ceiling”

17 American Indian Movement (1968) Worst off of minorities Worst off of minorities Claim Alcatraz Claim Alcatraz Gains Gains Indian Self Determination Act of 75 Indian Self Determination Act of 75 Reservations have greater control over internal programs, education, law enforcement (autonomy) Reservations have greater control over internal programs, education, law enforcement (autonomy) Casinos Casinos Compensation for treaty violations Compensation for treaty violations

18 Latino Activism 1970s – 12 mill illegal foreigners New arrivals in Midwest and East from PR, Cuba, and Central and South America 2000s- Hispanics largest minority group Gains Boycotts and Unionizing Cesar Chavez Bilingual classes 1980s public office

19 Gay Liberation Movement Stonewall Inn raid (69) Stonewall Inn raid (69) Harvey Milk Harvey Milk No longer classified as a mental illness No longer classified as a mental illness Gains in the 90’s Gains in the 90’s

20 Warren Court ( ) Mapp v. Ohio (1961) ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused. Mapp v. Ohio (1961) ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) required that state courts provide counsel for poor defendants. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) required that state courts provide counsel for poor defendants. Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent. Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent. Miranda v. Arizona (1966) extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police. Miranda v. Arizona (1966) extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police. Baker v. Carr (1962) principle of “one man, one vote,” election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representation (gerrymandering) Baker v. Carr (1962) principle of “one man, one vote,” election districts would have to be redrawn to provide equal representation (gerrymandering)

21 EVERYONE MUST COMPLETE ONE OF THE QUESTIONS BELOW!! Compare and contrast U.S society in the 1920s and 1950s with respect to race relations Directions: Construct a venn diagram. Fill it in with 6 pts of o.i. Make sure you give contrast and compare. “Between 1960 and 1975, there was great progress in the struggle for political and social equality.” Assess the validity of this statement with respect to TWO African Americans Native Americans Women Latinos Directions: Part One: Mostly, somewhat, or barely. Part Two: 3 pts of o.i for each group. Analysis must prove your argument of mostly, somewhat or barely Compare and contrast the women’s rights movement of the 1840s–1860s with the women’s rights movement of the 1960s–1980s. Compare and contrast the women’s rights movement of the 1840s–1860s with the women’s rights movement of the 1960s–1980s. Directions: Directions: Construct a venn diagram. Fill it in with 6 pts of o.i. Make sure you give contrast and compare.


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