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The Kite Runner: Historical, Political and Cultural Contexts.

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1 The Kite Runner: Historical, Political and Cultural Contexts

2 The Kite Runner: Introduction First novel to be written in English Title is derived from an old Afghan hobby Gudiparan Bazi or Kite Flying It is a unique Afghan pastime during windy spring season

3 About the Author Born in 1965 in Kabul, Afghanistan Moved to the States in 1980 Attended Santa Clara University, Cal Graduated from UC San Diego School of Medicine in 1996 His specialty is internal medicine.

4 Synopsis The novel maps the journey of the Amir, the narrator. The story takes place in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the United States from 1975 to 2003.

5 Synopsis

6 Amir belongs to: a wealthy family whose father is a businessman the dominant Pashtun ethnic group the dominant Sunni religious group

7 Synopsis Amir tells the story of his friendship with Hassan. Hassan and his father, Ali, are Amir’s servants He is a low-caste ethnic Hazara He belongs to the minority Shi’it religious denomination He is the victim of discrimination due to his religious and ethnic identity Ironically, he is also Amir’s half brother

8 Synopsis AMIR AND HIS GUILT FEELING: Amir is overwhelm with guilt when he allows Hassan to be beaten by the neighborhood kids and raped by one of the boys. SEPARATION: Hassan and his father leave Kabul for Hazarajat Amir and his father flee Afghanistan for Pakistan and eventually they end up in Fremont, California Amir takes his tragic memories to America

9 Synopsis He returns to Afghanistan in search of Hassan While in Pakistan, Amir finds out that Hassan and his wife were killed by the Taliban regime They left a son behind by the name of Sohrab AMIR ARRIVES AT KABUL He discovers that Sohrab has become the victim of sexual assault by Assef. Assef is a neighborhood boy who also molested Hassan Amir must defeat Assef in a physical battle in order to take Sohrab out of Afghanistan and try to help repair his spirit.

10 The Taliban The world Taliban is the plural of and Arabic word, Talib or someone who seeks religious knowledge before he becomes a preacher in a mosque They were the sons of Afghan refugees in Pakistan and attended Pakistani schools of theology Became active in October 1994 in Qandahar and continued there advances in the country with help of Pakistan By 1997 they held about 90 percent of the Afghan territory, including Kabul THE TALIBAN ACHIEVEMENT They brought relative peace and security in the country

11 The Taliban’s Achievement The banished the warlords and forced to the northeastern corner the country and formed the Northern Alliance Restored law and order but through rigorous enforcement of Islamic punishment: public beating, flogging, amputation of hands, and stoning to death The Ministry for the Promotion of Virtue and Suppression of Vice was the powerful arm of the Taliban government. The ministry issued strict religious decrees that denied people the right to freedom of expression, association, the right to work, and the right to education They prohibited games such as kite flying, chess, music, cassette

12 The Taliban and the World Reaction Only three countries recognized the Taliban government: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan Initially, America gave a lukewarm support to the Taliban. We hoped the regime would be a partner in oil-pipeline, UNOCAL or Union Oil Company of California CONCLUSION The new game, Cold War, between the U.S.A. and the former Soviet Union brought death and utter destruction to the country Over 5 million Afghans abandoned their homes and went into exile in other countries Close to 1.5 million lost their lives Many left their homes for secured areas of the country

13 Other Factors the Contributed to a Failed State in Afghanistan A DIVERSE NATION Afghanistan is nation of groups with disparate ethnic, religious, and tribal traditions. ETHNIC DIVERSITY Over 30 different ethnic groups. They are not contained within Afghanistan. Pashtuns are the dominant ethnic groups, who account for about 38 percent of the population and ruled Afghanistan for most of the history of Afghanistan. Tajiks are the second largest ethnic groups with about 25 percent of the population.

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15 Ethnicity Tajik Pashtun Hazara Hazaras consists of about10 to 15 percent

16 Ethnicity Uzbak Baluch Pashtun Uzbaks consists of about 9 percent Others (Turkmen, Aimaq, Baluch, Nuristani) 13 percent.

17 Religious Diversity Afghanistan has two dominant religious groups, the Sunni,or the so-called orthodox Islam, and Shi’ite or the so-called heterodox. Sunni constitutes 85 percent of the population and Shi’ite consists of 15 percent of Afghan population Shi’ites split from the Sunni’s in the seventh century over who the Prohet Mohammad’s legitimate successors were Shi’ites consider Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, the legitimate successor Shi’ites developed their own conception of Islamic law and practices. In the past Shi’ites had been persecuted in Afghanistan.

18 Conclusion The Kite Runner tells the sad story of Afghan people. They have suffered at the hands of foreign invaders and their own people I have attempted to explore the causes behind the Afghan tragedy and elaborated on the following causes: The Great Game The Cold War Heterogeneity of Afghan Society Tribal tradition The result was the failure of Afghan state.

19 Kite Running ezs


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