Presentation on theme: "Stages in its evolution from 1946-2011. Diaspora negation Shame: “lambs to the slaughter” Stories were not solicited Survivors were implicitly."— Presentation transcript:
Stages in its evolution from
Diaspora negation Shame: “lambs to the slaughter” Stories were not solicited Survivors were implicitly accused: Non-Zionists, “The good ones died ” Minimal teaching on Holocaust
“The trouble with the Diaspora Jews is that they preferred the life of a beaten dog to an honorable death” (Yitzhak Grinbaum) “Why don’t the Jews of Hungary defend themselves?” (Davar daily newspaper in Palestine, Front page, June 1944)
“Our children read and hear a lot about the destruction of the Diaspora, the atrocities which were committed to our brethren and their suffering, but their hearts remains indifferent. …This is not surprising. Our youth is tall and proud in stature and spirit. They believe in their powers and know their worth. They love freedom and strive for open space. They would never tolerate any oppression”. (Weronovski, 1954)
“No one believed me. They asked questions and asked investigative queries as if I were a criminal who wanted to cheat people” (Kurtz) “I wanted to be asked about what had happened to me “there”. My story was the only property I owned. But no one asked”. (Miriam Weinfeld) “That’s the tragedy of the survivor’s mission. He has to tell a story that cannot be told. He has to convey a message that cannot be conveyed” (Eli Wiezel)
“ Every IDF soldier has the obligation to refuse a blatantly illegal order”. “The Jewish soldier will never be aided by the claim “I only filled orders”. He must understand what he is asked to do. Evil must be stopped way before it becomes at all similar to that of the Holocaust” paraphrase, Judge Levi)
Formal, state level, collective Focus on bravery Impersonal: “Six million” At the same time – attempt to list witnesses.
Three educational stances were developed: The Holocaust should be taught to strengthen Zionist identity and prove its necessity. The Holocaust should be used to strengthen humanist values. Historical knowledge of what took place should be stressed.
Eichmann’s trial The pre-Six day War anxiety The Yom Kippur war sense of defeat The 1977 political change.
Focus on the personal Stories and suffering First popular renditions of second generation (“Dust and ashes”) The “Each person has a name” project.
The Holocaust Encyclopedia “I escaped from Auschwitz”
Voted “Most important Israeli album ever”.
Educational visits to Poland March of the living Thousands of studies, books, on Holocaust Political message of fear “privatization” offered Critique of Holocaust commemoration raised.
Jewish+Zionist identity closely tied with Holocaust Strong sense of “never again” Sense of being alone in the world. Sense of victimhood (sharp change from Israelis as entirely heroic) Arabs grouped with all others who wish for the demise of the Jews.
Used for different political agendas. Differentiated by groups: Orthodox, Ultra- Orthodox, children, GLBT, the deaf, and so on. Critique is sometime expressed of mainstream messages and education in light of Holocaust. Alternative ceremonies focus on personal perspectives. Call is made for more universal content. Some call is made for “moving on”.