3 Working Conditions and Wages The factory system was a major change for European workers:Factory work became less skilledFactory conditions were dirty, dangerous, and unhealthyWorkers worked long hours (12-16 hr day)Factory workers were not paid well; Women & children were paid less than menOwners required workers “clock in” & limited their breaks to increase production
6 Conditions in Coal Mines The invention of the steam engine increased demand for coal:Coal production grew from 5 million tons in 1750 to 23 million tons in 1830Men, women, children were used in minesMines were unhealthy & dangerous: Lung disease, poison gas, drowning, explosions cave-ins were common for workers
9 Child LaborThe Industrial Revolution changed the lives of many children:Rather than working for their parents on family farms, many children in the cities worked in factories, brickyards, or minesLiving in cities was expensive so poor families needed their kids to workChild workers earned 10% of an adult wage, worked long hours in dangerous conditions, were often beaten
12 Changing Role of WomenThe Industrial Revolution changed the lives of many women:Rather than working with their husbands on family farms and taking care of children, poor women in cities worked in factoriesSome women worked as domestic servantsFactory jobs for women required long hours away from their children and could leave women crippled, sick, or deformedWomen were paid ½ or ⅓ of a man’s salary
15 Urbanization Urbanization increased dramatically: The increase in population and enclosure of farms forced people to move to citiesPoor families lived in poorly constructed apartments built by factory owners called tenements in neighborhoods called slumsMany families shared cramped apartments that lacked running water or sanitationHard factory jobs and disease led to short life expectancies for urban workers
18 Changing Class Structure During the Industrial Revolution, the social class system changed as ownership of land stopped being the most important factor:At the top were the industrial capitalists who gained wealth by owning factoriesThe middle class grew because of growth of engineers, managers, shopkeepersThe bottom class grew because of the size of the urban poor who worked for low wages in factories
20 How did people respond to the changes & abuses of the Industrial Revolution? Some demanded reforms to fix problems caused by the Industrial RevolutionIn the mid-1800s, Britain & the U.S. passed child & women labor laws that limited hours & type of work they could performReformers regulated water, food, sewage; Offered public education; Regulated living & work conditions
21 When union demands were not met, workers went on strike How did people respond to the changes & abuses of the Industrial Revolution?Workers joined unions & demand better pay, fewer hours, safer work conditionsWhen union demands were not met, workers went on strike
22 The economy of the Industrial Revolution was based on capitalism How did people respond to the changes & abuses of the Industrial Revolution?The economy of the Industrial Revolution was based on capitalismAs Adam Smith explained, businesses operated in a free market economy based on competition, profits, supply & demandGovernments applied laissez-faire principles & avoided heavy taxes, regulations, or interference in business
23 How did people respond to the changes & abuses of the Industrial Revolution? Some believed that was the reasons for the growing gap between the rich and poor…
24 …and rejected capitalism in favor of socialism How did people respond to the changes & abuses of the Industrial Revolution?…and rejected capitalism in favor of socialismSocialists argued that the government should plan the economy by controlling factories, farms, railroads, mines, & important industriesThis would create equality & end poverty by redistributing wealth from rich capitalists to the poor workers24
26 Karl Marx introduced a radical form of socialism called communism How did people respond to the changes & abuses of the Industrial Revolution?Karl Marx introduced a radical form of socialism called communismMarx & Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto which predicted a war between the “haves” & “have nots”Marx encouraged workers to overthrow owners, seize control of factories, distribute goods evenly, & create economic equality for all people26
29 Questions to Ask:What do you see in this photo? (In this instance it is not the worker as a person but what the worker is doing that we need to focus on)What might these workers be doing?Would you like doing the same task for hours on end?29
30 A woman worker in a Lowell Mill (late 1800s, early 1900s) Questions to Ask:What do you see in this image?What do you think about the machine the woman is working with? Does it look safe or dangerous?30
31 Boys working in a textile mill of some sort Questions to Ask:What do you see in this picture? (It is part of the textile industry)How old do these boys look?Why would these boys be hired for a job they’re obviously not tall enough to do?Does this look dangerous?31
32 Girl working in a textile mill of some sort Questions to Ask:What do you see in this photo? (It is part of the textile industry)How old does the girl look?How much of the machine do you think she is responsible for looking after?Do you think she is on her feet the whole day?32
35 Evidence of Textile Workers in Wilson's Mill, Nottingham Hannah Goode: "I work at Mr. Wilson's mill. I think the youngest child is about 7. I daresay there are 20 under 9 years. It is about half past five by our clock at home when we go in....We come out at seven by the mill. We never stop to take our meals, except at dinner.William Crookes is overlooker in our room. He is cross-tempered sometimes. He does not beat me; he beats the little children if they do not do their work right....I have sometimes seen the little children drop asleep or so, but not lately. If they are catched asleep they get the strap. They are always very tired at night....I can read a little; I can't write. I used to go to school before I went to the mill; I have since I am sixteen."Mrs. Smith: "I have three children working in Wilson's mill; one 11, one 13, and the other 14. They work regular hours there. We don't complain. If they go to drop the hours, I don't know what poor people will do. We have hard work to live as it is. ...My husband is of the same mind about it...last summer my husband was 6 weeks ill; we pledged almost all our things to live; the things are not all out of pawn yet. ...We complain of nothing but short wages...My children have been in the mill three years. I have no complaint to make of their being beaten...I would rather they were beaten than fined."
36 Lowell Mills Boarding House, early- to mid-1800s Questions to Ask:What do you see in this image? (Some early factory owners built up cities around their factories, buildings like dormitories for workers, churches, stores, schools, etc)Does this look like a nice place to live?Would you want to live here?Do you think it stayed this nice for a long time?36
37 “London through the haze” c.1910 (smog) Questions to Ask:What do you see here?How healthy do you think this is?Where are some places that have smog today? (LA, NY, Beijing, etc)37
49 QUESTIONSWhat do you think happened to younger children when the family was away at work in mills?What might be different about work done at home compared to work in the factory?Why did some workers oppose the imposition of laws restricting women and children's work?
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