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Motivation and Emotion

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation and Emotion

2 Motivation internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain our behavior

3 Drive-Reduction Theory
Activation of many different behaviors Biological Need (need for food, water, oxygen, etc.) Drive State (hunger, thirst, etc.) Behaviors that reduce drive are strengthened Behaviors that do not reduce drive are weakened

4 Theories of Motivation
Drive-Reduction Theory Humans sometimes engage in behaviors that increase rather than reduce drives Arousal Theory Motivated to be at optimal level of arousal

5 Yerkes-Dodson Law There is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task. The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates.

6 Theories of Motivation
Incentive theories Motivation  incentives/pay offs Cognitive approaches thoughts, expectations, and goals Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation

7 Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior originates within the individual Extrinsic motivation A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment

8 Maslow’s Hierarchy

9 Identify the motive… Have I got a terrible headache. It’s really splitting. It gets lonely in my apartment on the weekends. My roommate goes to visit her parents and most of my neighbors are away too. I feel really bored by this course. It’s a lot like the one I took last year. I was hoping it would be more challenging.

10 Identify the motive… He really makes me furious. I’m tired of his put-downs! Who does he think he is anyway? Uh, listen, do you mind if we don’t go into that nightclub? I hear that some tough types hang out there and that someone got beaten up there last week. Hey, guess what? I just got an A+ on my term paper. Pretty good, eh?


12 Human Needs & Motivation
Hunger and Thirst stimulated by internal and external cues Hypothalamus (lateral and ventromedial) Blood levels Glucose, fats, carbohydrates, insulin, leptin Cells in stomach and small intestine

13 Insulin: secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose
Leptin: protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger Orexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus Ghrelin: hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to brain PYY: digestive tract hormone; sends “I’m not hungry” signals to brain

14 Human Needs & Motivation
Hunger & Thirst Sights and smells Body Mass Index (BMI) Stress

15 Motivations-to-Eat (Jackson et al., 2003)
Suggests that there are four specific motivations for eating beyond the “need” for nourishment To cope with negative affect To be social To comply with others’ expectations To enhance pleasure

16 Means Females Males 1.78 coping 2.74 social 1.60 compliance
2.33 pleasure Males 1.40 coping 2.66 social 1.54 compliance 2.28 pleasure

17 Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa
A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body image Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced purging

18 Eating Disorders Increased incidence in relatives Serotonin
Perfectionism Dissatisfaction with body

19 Ladies Home Journal poll (2003)
On a scale from 1-10, 43% rated bodies between % rated perfect, 20% ranked themselves at 5 One out of three said they were currently on a diet When given a choice between a facelift or a refurbished kitchen, 78% chose the kitchen

20 52% would rather have smaller hips or thighs than a two-week vacation “to get away from it all”
87% said it’s more acceptable for men to go gray and get out of shape than it is for women 75% said they would rather have a root canal than wear a thong bikini

21 Need for Affiliation Interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with others Ostracism

22 Emotions Body Response (arousal) Expressive Reaction Conscious

23 Emotions Primary emotions Secondary emotions


25 James-Lange Theory Certain stimuli in the environment can bring on physiological changes. Emotions arise from our awareness of those changes. Facial feedback hypothesis



28 Neuroscience of Emotions
Specific patterns of biological arousal associated with specific emotions PET scans Amygdale  link between perception of stimulus and recall of stimulus later

29 Communicating Emotions
Voice Quality and Facial Expression Body language Personal space Explicit Acts

30 Gender and Emotion Research findings
Men and women may feel emotions similarly, but differ in how they are expressed. Same situation may provoke different emotions. Women are better at reading emotional cues than men.

31 Anger Response to perceived misdeeds
Common when acts are seen as willful, unjustified, and avoidable Can promote prejudice and heart disease Catharsis hypothesis

32 Happiness Feel-good, do-good phenomenon Subjective well-being
Self-perceived happiness/satisfaction with life

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