2Motivationinternal processes that activate, guide, and maintain our behavior
3Drive-Reduction Theory Activation of many different behaviorsBiological Need (need for food, water, oxygen, etc.)Drive State (hunger, thirst, etc.)Behaviors that reduce drive are strengthenedBehaviors that do not reduce drive are weakened
4Theories of Motivation Drive-Reduction TheoryHumans sometimes engage in behaviors that increase rather than reduce drivesArousal TheoryMotivated to be at optimal level of arousal
5Yerkes-Dodson LawThere is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task.The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates.
6Theories of Motivation Incentive theoriesMotivation incentives/pay offsCognitive approachesthoughts, expectations, and goalsIntrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation
7Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation A desire to perform a behavior originates within the individualExtrinsic motivationA desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
9Identify the motive…Have I got a terrible headache. It’s really splitting.It gets lonely in my apartment on the weekends. My roommate goes to visit her parents and most of my neighbors are away too.I feel really bored by this course. It’s a lot like the one I took last year. I was hoping it would be more challenging.
10Identify the motive…He really makes me furious. I’m tired of his put-downs! Who does he think he is anyway?Uh, listen, do you mind if we don’t go into that nightclub? I hear that some tough types hang out there and that someone got beaten up there last week.Hey, guess what? I just got an A+ on my term paper. Pretty good, eh?
12Human Needs & Motivation Hunger and Thirststimulated by internal and external cuesHypothalamus (lateral and ventromedial)Blood levelsGlucose, fats, carbohydrates, insulin, leptinCells in stomach and small intestine
13Insulin: secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose Leptin: protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism anddecrease hungerOrexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamusGhrelin: hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to brainPYY: digestive tract hormone; sends “I’m not hungry” signals to brain
14Human Needs & Motivation Hunger & ThirstSights and smellsBody Mass Index (BMI)Stress
15Motivations-to-Eat (Jackson et al., 2003) Suggests that there are four specific motivations for eating beyond the “need” for nourishmentTo cope with negative affectTo be socialTo comply with others’ expectationsTo enhance pleasure
17Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body imageBulimia nervosaAn eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced purging
18Eating Disorders Increased incidence in relatives Serotonin PerfectionismDissatisfaction with body
19Ladies Home Journal poll (2003) On a scale from 1-10, 43% rated bodies between % rated perfect, 20% ranked themselves at 5One out of three said they were currently on a dietWhen given a choice between a facelift or a refurbished kitchen, 78% chose the kitchen
2052% would rather have smaller hips or thighs than a two-week vacation “to get away from it all” 87% said it’s more acceptable for men to go gray and get out of shape than it is for women75% said they would rather have a root canal than wear a thong bikini
21Need for AffiliationInterest in establishing and maintaining relationships with othersOstracism
22Emotions Body Response (arousal) Expressive Reaction Conscious Experience
28Neuroscience of Emotions Specific patterns of biological arousal associated with specific emotionsPET scansAmygdale link between perception of stimulus and recall of stimulus later
29Communicating Emotions Voice Quality and Facial ExpressionBody languagePersonal spaceExplicit Acts
30Gender and Emotion Research findings Men and women may feel emotions similarly, but differ in how they are expressed.Same situation may provoke different emotions.Women are better at reading emotional cues than men.
31Anger Response to perceived misdeeds Common when acts are seen as willful, unjustified, and avoidableCan promote prejudice and heart diseaseCatharsis hypothesis
32Happiness Feel-good, do-good phenomenon Subjective well-being Self-perceived happiness/satisfaction with life