Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotion. Motivation internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain our behavior."— Presentation transcript:
Motivation and Emotion
Motivation internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain our behavior
Drive-Reduction Theory Activation of many different behaviors Biological Need (need for food, water, oxygen, etc.) Drive State (hunger, thirst, etc.) Behaviors that reduce drive are strengthened Behaviors that do not reduce drive are weakened
Theories of Motivation Drive-Reduction Theory Humans sometimes engage in behaviors that increase rather than reduce drives Arousal Theory Motivated to be at optimal level of arousal
Yerkes-Dodson Law There is an optimal level of arousal for the best performance of any task. The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated before performance deteriorates.
Theories of Motivation Incentive theories Motivation incentives/pay offs Cognitive approaches thoughts, expectations, and goals Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation A desire to perform a behavior originates within the individual Extrinsic motivation A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment
Identify the motive… Have I got a terrible headache. It’s really splitting. It gets lonely in my apartment on the weekends. My roommate goes to visit her parents and most of my neighbors are away too. I feel really bored by this course. It’s a lot like the one I took last year. I was hoping it would be more challenging.
Identify the motive… He really makes me furious. I’m tired of his put- downs! Who does he think he is anyway? Uh, listen, do you mind if we don’t go into that nightclub? I hear that some tough types hang out there and that someone got beaten up there last week. Hey, guess what? I just got an A+ on my term paper. Pretty good, eh?
Human Needs & Motivation Hunger and Thirst stimulated by internal and external cues Hypothalamus (lateral and ventromedial) Blood levels Glucose, fats, carbohydrates, insulin, leptin Cells in stomach and small intestine
Insulin: secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose Leptin: protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger Orexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus Ghrelin: hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to brain PYY: digestive tract hormone; sends “I’m not hungry” signals to brain
Human Needs & Motivation Hunger & Thirst Sights and smells Body Mass Index (BMI) Stress
Motivations-to-Eat (Jackson et al., 2003) Suggests that there are four specific motivations for eating beyond the “need” for nourishment To cope with negative affect To be social To comply with others’ expectations To enhance pleasure
Means Females 1.78 coping 2.74 social 1.60 compliance 2.33 pleasure Males 1.40 coping 2.66 social 1.54 compliance 2.28 pleasure
Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa A serious eating disorder that is associated with an intense fear of weight gain and a distorted body image Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by binges of eating followed by self-induced purging
Eating Disorders Increased incidence in relatives Serotonin Perfectionism Dissatisfaction with body
Ladies Home Journal poll (2003) On a scale from 1-10, 43% rated bodies between % rated perfect, 20% ranked themselves at 5 One out of three said they were currently on a diet When given a choice between a facelift or a refurbished kitchen, 78% chose the kitchen
52% would rather have smaller hips or thighs than a two-week vacation “to get away from it all” 87% said it’s more acceptable for men to go gray and get out of shape than it is for women 75% said they would rather have a root canal than wear a thong bikini
Need for Affiliation Interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with others Ostracism
Emotions Body Response (arousal) Expressive Reaction Conscious Experience
Emotions Primary emotions Secondary emotions
James-Lange Theory Certain stimuli in the environment can bring on physiological changes. Emotions arise from our awareness of those changes. Facial feedback hypothesis
Neuroscience of Emotions Specific patterns of biological arousal associated with specific emotions PET scans Amygdale link between perception of stimulus and recall of stimulus later
Communicating Emotions Voice Quality and Facial Expression Body language Personal space Explicit Acts
Gender and Emotion Research findings Men and women may feel emotions similarly, but differ in how they are expressed. Same situation may provoke different emotions. Women are better at reading emotional cues than men.
Anger Response to perceived misdeeds Common when acts are seen as willful, unjustified, and avoidable Can promote prejudice and heart disease Catharsis hypothesis
Happiness Feel-good, do-good phenomenon Subjective well-being Self-perceived happiness/satisfaction with life