2 Stalin’s Great Turn – Why? NEP not Communist enough for rank and file communists (who Stalin depended upon)Peasantry becoming too powerful vis-à-vis Urban ProletariatConspicuous consumption by NepmenUnemployment rising in the Worker’s ParadiseSpeculative Hoarding1928 War Scare – Not enough strategic materialsAllows Stalin to isolate Rightist rivals15th Party Congress - Stalin DeclaresCollectivisationFirst Five Year PlanThe 5YP depended upon the success of Collectivisation
3 We are 50-100 years behind the advanced countries We are years behind the advanced countries. We must make up this gap in ten years. Either we do it or they crush us.Stalin 1931The Five Year PlansStalin believed that industry could only develop through state control. Under GOSPLAN, three Five Year Plans set targets between to increase production.Russian industry changed enormously. New towns such as Magnitogorsk grew up and large projects such as the Dnieper hydroelectric dam were developed. The USSR became a major industrial country.The human cost was high. Forced labour killed millions, working conditions were poor and hours of work were long.
4 Throughout history Russia has been beaten again and again because she was backward… to slow down industrialisation would mean falling behind and getting beaten. Russia was beaten by British and French capitalists and the Japanese too. Lenin has said: ‘Either die or overtake and outstrip the advanced capitalist countries’. We are 50 to 100 years behind them. Either we make good the difference or they crush us.”Stalin speaking in 1931How does this source help you to understand why the Five-Year Plans were introduced in 1928?
7 Cash Crisis For 5YP Money was required To invest in or purchase: Factories/PlantMachinesWorkers/WagesRaw Materials
8 Possible sources of money Tax Soviet citizensNot a rich society – hit by war, Civil war, exile, confiscations, war communism, hiding of assets from CommunistsBorrow money from abroadReneged on Tsarist loansCapitalists unlikely to lend to nationalising communistsEncourage greater grain productionHow?
9 Grain converted into Hard Cash Encourage greater grain productionSell grain on open marketCollectives would allow:Access to expensive new machinery to improve efficiencyMechanisation would allow surplus workforce to migrate to townsUpdate farming techniques by learning from expertsEconomies of Scalelarger units of production brought efficienciesEasier for State to collectSocialist answer to USSR’s problemEasier political control of hostile peasant classes
10 CollectivisationIn the late 1920s, Russia suffered a food crisis. To feed starving workers, Stalin ordered the seizure of grain from the farmers.The peasants hid food or produced less.
11 Stalin in 1928Reasons for Collectivisation Agriculture is developing slowly, comrades. This is because we have about 25 million individually owned farms. They are the most primitive and undeveloped form of economy. We must do our utmost to develop large farms and to convert them into grain factories for the country organised on a modem scientific basis.
12 CollectivisationIn 1929 Stalin announced the collectivisation of farms.The most common was the Kolkhoz in which land was joined together and the former owners worked together and shared everything. Stalin persuaded peasants to join by attacking the Kulaks, peasants that had grown as a result of the NEP.
13 The Kolkhoz No wages Quotas Prices set by State State Support Holidays, board and lodging in return for labourThe collective’s profit would be shared out equitably at the end of the yearQuotas Prices set by StateState would sell in cities as slight profitState SupportMachine and Tractor StationsHad to pay 20% of produce to access machineryPrivate PlotsOnce collective duties completed
14 QuestionHow is this close to the concept/idea of communism?
15 Collectives Anyone? Few Peasants willing to move into collectives Conservative Peasants:The NEP seemed to be working fine for themUnfamiliar working practicesSuspicious of new machinery and techniquesMemories of War Communism and forced requisitioningLittle sympathy for plight of urban poor
16 The Pressure Builds 1928/9 Grain Procurement Crisis Stalin’s Pressures Not enough grain to allow 5YP to proceedFood shortages in CitiesPrice rises – inflationStalin’s PressuresCredibility attached to success of 5YPUrban workers support base for StalinPower struggle not yet completeUrals –Siberian experimentLong term goal of Industrialisation of AgricultureIdeological distrust of peasant classStalin’s SolutionRequisitioningForced Collectivisation
17 Forced Collectivisation Rural Communist parties resisted collectivisation quotasToo unpopularSpecial Urban party activist task force created25,000 attended special Two Week coursesTacticsRoot out Kulaks?Confiscate goodsWould become basis of new commune‘Persuade’ remaining peasants to volunteer to join a collectiveTools usedPropagandaControlled all sources of informationForceOGPU, Police, MilitaryTerrorDenunciations, Executions of Kulaks, ‘Necessary Measures’10 Million deported Siberia and Labour campsQuotas
20 De-Kulakisation Class warfare declared on Kulaks Communist classification of peasants:Kulaks – better off Peasants –hired helpMiddle Peasants – moderate incomesPoor Peasants - landless“We will hit the Kulaks so hard that the middle peasants will snap to attention before us”Ukraine targeted for being less reliable than Russian areasUkrainian nationalism
23 Stalin’s agricultural collectivisation “Look at the Kulak farms: their barns and sheds are crammed with grain. They are waiting for prices to rise. So long as there are Kulaks there will be sabotage of our grain needs. The effect will be that our towns and industrial centres, as well as the Red Army, will be threatened with hunger. We cannot allow that. We must break the resistance of this class and deprive it of its existence.”Stalin speaking to Siberian party officials after the grain crisis of 1927How does this source help you to understand why collectivisation was introduced in 1928?
24 Peasant Resistance Riots Armed Resistance Peasants destroyed own goods rather than hand them over to the StateMass slaughter of livestockRaids on Collectives to liberate goods and livestockAll women raids made troops reluctant to shoot to kill
25 Results of Collectivisation 23 Million tonnes of grain seized in 1931Enough to feed urban areas5 million tonnes of grain sold overseasHoweverDesolated rural areasFamine 1932 – 1934Millions died of starvation in rural areas7 Million according to Robert ConquestUkraine particularly hard hit
26 Results of Collectivisation Fall in productionNot enough livestock to do workBest farmers annihilated as KulaksRussia was producing the same amount of food as it had in 1928Pre-collective era grain production not reached until 1937
27 Cultivate Vegetables! Grain 1928 = 73.3 million tons Cattle1929 = 70.5 million1934 = 42.4 millionPigs1928 = 26 million1934 = 22.6 millionSheep and goats1928 = million1934 = 51.9 million
28 Results of Collectivisation ButStalin content to see the end of the ‘accursed problem’ of the peasant classDemonstrates power of Communist PartyConfirms Stalin’s control of Communist PartyGulag Labour increased massivelyMigration of peasants to citiesBy 1939, Collectivisation was clearly a disaster and the problem was even worse as its population had increased by 20 million - all of whom needed feeding.
29 At the same time, he carefully cultivated a fatherly image, to assure the people he was there to protect them.
30 Results of Collectivisation “Dizzy with Success” temporary climb down by Stalin 1930Claims over eager officials getting carried away
31 ‘Sacking Grain’, an oil painting by the Soviet artist Tatyana Yablonskaya At roughly what date, and for what purpose would this picture have been painted?
32 Say Something Significant Choose a sentence-starter and make the most complex statement you can about collectivisation.Cause and effect:“The main reason …..”Pattern:“Throughout Stalin’s rule in Russia, people kept ….”Turning point:“Everything changed when …..”Simple judgement:“The smartest choice was ……..”
33 Activity Use the sources and information to complete the table. Ways in which collectivisation was economically successful for the government?Ways in which collectivisation was politically successful for the governmentWays in which collectivisation was an economic failureThe human cost of collectivisation
34 QuestionCollectivisation was a political success but an economic failure and a human disaster. Discuss.How convincing is the argument that collectivisation was an ‘ideological triumph but an economic disaster’?In what ways did the living conditions of the peasants change as a result of collectivisation?Collectivisation was ‘all very bad and difficult – but necessary.’ Is this a fair assessment?
35 Say Something Significant Choose a sentence-starter and make the most complex statement you can about collectivisation.Cause and effect:“The main reason …..”Pattern:“Throughout Stalin’s rule in Russia, people kept ….”Turning point:“Everything changed when …..”Simple judgement:“The smartest choice was ……..”
36 Industrialisation Collectivisation was only a means to an end The food grown could be sold on the world market to allow investment in industrySoviet Industry was designed to provide for the State (not the consumer)Hence, very little produced that would be wanted by world market
39 Long live the great Stalin 1938 The Great Patriotic War 1941-1945 When Germany attacked the USSR in 1941, Stalin used the same ruthlessness to defend his country.The defence of the USSR was the bloodiest war in history and cost the lives of millions of people and the destruction of thousands of villages, towns and cities.The final victory in 1945 was, like everything else, put down to the personal leadership of Stalin by the Soviet propaganda machine.After the war, Stalin built up the USSR as a superpower, in opposition to the USA. This conflict was known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953.Long live thegreat Stalin 1938