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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Psychological Disorders zPsychological Disorder ya condition in which behavior is judged: xatypical- not enough in itself xdisturbing- varies with time & culture xmaladaptive- harmful xunjustifiable- sometimes there’s a good reason

3 Historical Perspective zPerceived Causes ymovements of sun or moon xlunacy- full moon yevil spirits zAncient Treatments yexorcism, caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, blood replaced with animal’s blood

4 Psychological Disorders zMedical Model yconcept that diseases have physical causes ycan be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured yassumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital

5 Psychological Disorders zBio-psycho-social Perspective yassumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders Biological (Evolution, individual genes, brain structures and chemistry) Psychological (Stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related perceptions and memories) Sociocultural (Roles, expectations, definition of normality and disorder)

6 Psychological Disorders- Etiology zDSM-IV yAmerican Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) ya widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

7 Psychological Disorders- Etiology zNeurotic disorder (term seldom used now) yusually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially yFreud saw the neurotic disorders as ways of dealing with anxiety zPsychotic disorder yperson loses contact with reality yexperiences irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

8 Anxiety Disorders zAnxiety Disorders ydistressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety zGeneralized Anxiety Disorder yclient is tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal zPhobia ypersistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation

9 Anxiety Disorders zCommon and uncommon fears Afraid of itBothers slightlyNot at all afraid of it Being closed in, in a small place Being alone In a house at night Percentage of people surveyed SnakesBeing in high, exposed places MiceFlying on an airplane Spiders and insects Thunder and lightning DogsDriving a car Being In a crowd of people Cats

10 Anxiety Disorders zObsessive-Compulsive Disorder ycharacterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions) zPanic Disorder ymarked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensation

11 Anxiety Disorders Common Obsessions and Compulsions Among People With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Thought or BehaviorPercentage* Reporting Symptom Obsessions (repetitive thoughts) Concern with dirt, germs, or toxins 40 Something terrible happening (fire, death, illness) 40 Symmetry order, or exactness 24 Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, 85 or grooming Compulsions (repetitive behaviors) Repeating rituals (in/out of a door, 51 up/down from a chair) Checking doors, locks, appliances, 46 car brake, homework

12 Dissociative Disorders zDissociative Disorders yconscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings zDissociative Amnesia yselective memory loss often brought on by extreme stress

13 Dissociative Disorders zDissociative Fugue yflight from one’s home and identity accompanies amnesia zDissociative Identity Disorder yrare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities yformerly called multiple personality disorder

14 Mood Disorders zMood Disorders ycharacterized by emotional extremes zMajor Depressive Disorder ya mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

15 Mood Disorders zMania ya mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state zBipolar Disorder ya mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania yformerly called manic-depressive disorder

16 Mood Disorders- Suicide Suicides per 100,000 people Males Females The higher suicide rate among men greatly increases in late adulthood

17 Mood Disorders- Suicide Suicide rate per 100,000 people In recent decades teen suicides have soared Ages 15-19All Ages

18 Mood Disorders- Depression Percentage of population aged experiencing major depression at some point In life USA Edmonton Puerto Paris West Florence Beirut Taiwan Korea New Rico Germany Zealand Around the world women are more susceptible to depression

19 Mood Disorders- Bipolar zPET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swings Depressed stateManic stateDepressed state

20 Mood Disorders- Depression zAltering any one component of the chemistry- cognition-mood circuit can alter the others Brain chemistry Cognition Mood

21 Mood Disorders- Depression zThe vicious cycle of depression can be broken at any point 1 Stressful experiences 4 Cognitive and behavioral changes 2 Negative explanatory style 3 Depressed mood

22 Schizophrenia zSchizophrenia yliteral translation “split mind” ya group of severe psychotic disorders characterized by: xdisorganized and delusional thinking xdisturbed perceptions xinappropriate emotions and actions

23 Schizophrenia zDelusions yfalse beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders zHallucinations yfalse sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus

24 Schizophrenia Subtypes of Schizophrenia Paranoid: Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations Disorganized: Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion Catatonic: Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another’s speech or movements Undifferentiated Schizophrenia symptoms without fitting one of the or residual: above types

25 Schizophrenia Lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia for relatives of a schizophrenic General population SiblingsChildrenFraternal twin Children of two schizophrenia victims Identical twin

26 Personality Disorders zPersonality Disorders ydisorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning yusually without anxiety, depression, or delusions

27 Personality Disorders zAntisocial Personality Disorder ydisorder in which the person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members ymay be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist

28 Personality Disorders Adrenaline Excretion(ng/min.) Nonstressful situation Stressful situation Those with criminal convictions have lower levels of arousal No criminal conviction Criminal conviction

29 Personality Disorders Percentage of criminal offenders Total crimeThieveryViolence Childhood poverty Obstetrical complications Both poverty and obstetrical complications

30 Rates of Psychological Disorders Percentage of Americans Who Have Ever Experienced Psychological Disorders Disorder White Black Hispanic Men Women Totals Ethnicity Gender Alcohol abuse or dependence 13.6% 13.8% 16.7% 23.8% 4.6% 13.8% Generalized anxiety Phobia Obsessive-compulsive disorder Mood disorder Schizophrenic disorder Antisocial personality disorder


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