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American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Section Eight Unit 15 Cake.

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Presentation on theme: "American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Section Eight Unit 15 Cake."— Presentation transcript:

1 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Section Eight Unit 15 Cake Formulas and Mixing Methods

2 2 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Objectives Explain the function of each ingredient used in cake batter Describe ratios and how to balance cake batter formulas Explain the formulas and mixing methods for panning and baking foam-type batters Discuss the formulas and mixing methods for panning and baking creamed-type batters Explain the difference between formulas and mixing methods for panning and baking hi-ratio cakes

3 3 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Terms to Know Specific terms to know from this unit: Chiffon Emulsions Extracts Foaming Genoise Recede Roulade Soft peaks Specific gravity Sponge

4 4 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Cake Batter Ingredients Basic ingredients of sugar, eggs, and flour The addition of milk, fat, and chemical leavening agents created additional varieties Balanced formula resulting in sweetened, light, tender, and moist cake Quality ingredients show Recipes are formulated similar to bread recipes, where ingredients are listed as ratios (with flour = 100%)

5 5 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Cake Batter Ingredients (continued) Flour Cake flour is preferred (higher percentage of starch and neutral pH) Low gluten flour gives batter moist and tender consistency Sugar Used as a tenderizer, keeping moisture away from the flour Adds tenderness and sweetness, while aiding in leavening, crust color, and texture

6 6 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Cake Batter Ingredients (continued) Fat – shortening Moisture – suspends liquids via emulsions Tenderness – shorten gluten strands Volume – absorb air when beaten Milk Adds flavor and helps create golden brown crust color Adds proteins to help form the structure of the cake

7 7 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Cake Batter Ingredients (continued) Eggs Egg proteins provide structure of the cake Yolks and whites have different functions Egg yolks add color and tenderize Egg whites:  Stabilize  Drying effect  Retain air from foaming mixing

8 8 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Cake Batter Ingredients (continued) Flavoring agents Spices – cinnamon, allspice, nutmeg, clove, ginger and cardamom Extracts – vanilla, lemon, orange, and almond Emulsions – essences mixed with oil, water, and vegetable gum Nuts Fruits

9 9 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Leavening Chemical leavening agent – baking powder or baking soda Mechanical methods Foaming – whipping air into sugar and egg mixture Creaming – incorporating air into sugar and fat mixture

10 10 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Formula Balancing of Cakes Two basic types of cakes – those with shortening and those without shortening Major ingredients Sugar Flour Eggs Shortening Water/Milk Leavenors

11 11 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Formula Balancing of Cakes (continued) General aspects: Stable structure is required to retain gas generated by leavening agents Stabilizing ingredients must be balanced with tenderizing ingredients Ingredients that impart moisture must be balanced with those that absorb moisture Leavening (chemical or mechanical) is required to provide cake volume

12 12 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Angel Food/Sponge/Genoise Contains little or no fat Leavening is accomplished by foaming a sugar and egg mixture Cooked in clean, ungreased tube pan Can be baked in flat sheet pans and made into jelly rolls or roulades Genoise contains melted butter folded in at the last stage

13 13 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Sponge Cake Ratios The weight of sugar equals or exceeds the weight of eggs The total weight of liquids, including eggs, exceeds the weight of sugar The weight of sugar or eggs exceeds the weight of flour The total weight of eggs and flour exceeds the total weight of sugar and liquids

14 14 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Basic Angel Food Cake % RatioIngredients Weights Notes EnglishMetric 94% Egg whites 1 lb450 g Whip egg whites to soft peak. 23% Sugar 4 oz110 g Add sugar and cream of tartar. ½% Cream of tartar ¼ oz5 g 100% Cake flour 1 lb, 1 oz480 g Continue to whip. Sift second sugar and flour, and fold into egg whites by hand. 211% Sugar 2 lb, 4 oz1020 g Bake at 350°-375°F (180°-190°C) for approximately 20 minutes for each pound of batter. After removing from oven, invert pan to cool. After cooled, use sharp crack to release from the pan.

15 15 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Foaming Mixing Methods Cold Foaming Method Place eggs and sugar in mixing bowl; whip on medium speed for minutes Sift all dry ingredients 2-3 times to incorporate maximum air Fold the sifted dry ingredients into the egg mixture Fold in melted butter or milk Portion into cake pans

16 16 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Foaming Mixing Methods (continued) Warm Foaming Method Place eggs and sugar in mixing bowl; place over double boiler and whip until mixture is 110°F (43°C) Whip egg mixture at high speed (until mixture recedes) Reduce mixer speed to low and whip for an additional 10 minutes Sift all dry ingredients 2-3 times to incorporate maximum air Fold the sifted dry ingredients into the egg mixture Fold in melted butter with a liaison of egg mixture Portion into cake pans

17 17 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Foaming Mixing Methods (continued) Separation Foaming Method Separate eggs; put yolks into one mixing bowl and whites in another Put 1/3 of the sugar with the yolks and whip until doubled in size Put 2/3 of the sugar with the whites; place over double boiler until mixture is 110°F (43°C); whip on high until soft peaks are formed Sift all dry ingredients 2-3 times Fold the egg yolk foam into the egg white foam Fold in the sifted dry ingredients Fold in melted butter with a liaison of egg mixture Portion into cake pans

18 18 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Troubleshooting Sponge Cakes ProblemSolution Cake is tough Add more sugar; don’t over mix the batter; lower the oven temperature. Cake is heavy with a sticky layer on the bottom Beat eggs properly; fully mix eggs with other ingredients; add milk and butter at room temperature (not hotter). Cracks in the crust Don’t over beat eggs; reduce amount of sugar; decrease oven temperature. Sticky crustDecrease amount of sugar; bake longer. Poor volume Avoid over mixing; use smaller pan; increase baking time; use a clean mixing bowl (free of all grease). Lumps in the cakeDissolve sugar completely; sift flour.

19 19 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Pound Cakes/Layer Cakes Pound cake was named for ratio of ingredients – a pound of each Generally baked in loaf form Can support other flavoring ingredients: Raisins Nuts Chocolate chips

20 20 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Creaming Mixing Method Creaming mixing method Cream fat and sugar together Add flavorings; mix well Gradually add eggs Add liquids (alternate with flour if there is a large amount of liquid) Add flour Mix until smooth Portion into cake pans

21 21 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Creaming Mixing Method (continued) Creaming mixing method precautions Do not let the batter curdle (more of a problem during hot weather) Add eggs slowly (one at a time) Avoid over-beating after adding milk and flour, as over mixing will stir out part of the air already incorporated Start with ingredients at room temperature (70°F or 20°C) and maintain temperature throughout the mixing process

22 22 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Pound Cakes/Layer Cakes Ratios The weight of sugar equals or exceeds the weight of flour The weight of eggs equals or exceeds the weight of shortening The weight of eggs and other liquids equals or exceeds the weight of sugar

23 23 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Old-Fashioned Pound Cake % RatioIngredients Weights Notes EnglishMetric 100%Sugar1 lb450 g The creaming method is the recommended mixing procedure for this formula. 100%Butter1 lb450 g 100%Eggs1 lb450 g 100%Bread flour1 lb450 g Bake at 275°-300°F (140°-150°C) for approximately 35 minutes.

24 24 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Hi-Ratio Cakes Enhanced shortenings allow for use of greater amounts of sugar and liquids Requires two-stage mixing Measure the specific gravity of the batter to determine the amount of air incorporated during the mixing process

25 25 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Two-Stage Mixing Method Two-stage mixing method Mix all of the dry ingredients, shortening and 1/3 of the blended liquid (eggs and milk); mix for 4 minutes at medium speed Add the balance of liquids in two stages; mix for an additional 4 minutes at medium speed Scrape down sides, bottom and paddle of the bowl with each addition of liquids Measure specific gravity Equal to weight of a 10-oz cup divided by 10 Consensus is that 9.5 is ideal

26 26 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Hi-Ratio Cake Ratios The weight of sugar equals or exceeds the weight of flour The weight of liquids equals or exceeds the weight of sugar The weight of shortening is less than the weight of the eggs The leavening is ¾ oz (20 g) per pound (450 g) of flour The weight of tenderizers are equal to or greater than the weight of stabilizers

27 27 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Hi-Ratio Cake % RatioIngredients Weights Notes EnglishMetric 100%Sugar2 lb, 8 oz1130 g Use the two-stage mixing method. 2-½%Salt1 oz30 g 48%Cake shortening1 lb, 3 oz540 g 5%Baking powder2 oz60 g 100%Cake flour2 lb, 8 oz1130 g 20%Milk8 oz230 g 40%Eggs1 lb450 g 10%Egg yolks4 oz110 g 20%Milk8 oz230 g Bake at 375°-390°F (190°-200°C) for approximately 35 minutes.

28 28 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Combination/Chiffon Cakes Chiffon cakes are a type of sponge cake Make with oil, not melted butter or shortening Combine standard mixing method and foam mixing method Whipped egg whites are folded in and produce volume Cooled while inverted

29 29 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Chiffon Cake Mixing Method Chiffon cake mixing method Blend together all of the dry ingredients, except the sugar for the meringue Add oil, whole eggs, and water slowly; mix for 3 minutes on slow speed – do not over mix In a separate bowl, beat egg whites and cream of tartar to form a soft peak; add sugar and whip until stiff Fold the beaten egg whites into the batter

30 30 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Golden Chiffon Cake % RatioIngredients Weights Notes EnglishMetric 100%Cake flour14 oz400 g Use the two-stage mixing method. In a separate bowl, beat egg whites and cream of tartar to form soft peaks; add sugar and whip until stiff. Fold the beaten egg whites into the batter. ½%Baking powder½ oz100 g ¼%Salt¼ oz5 g 86%Sugar12 oz340 g 50%Oil7 oz200 g 50%Egg yolks7 oz200 g 72%Water10 oz280 g 115%Egg whites1 lb450 g Cream of tartar 42%Sugar6 oz170 g Bake at 375°-390°F (190°-200°C) for approximately 35 minutes.

31 31 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved High Altitude Baking Greater altitude will require less baking powder Too much baking powder will produce cake that is course grained Too little baking powder will produce a dense cake General guidelines are as follows:

32 32 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved High Altitude Baking (continued) High Altitude Baking Feet Above Sea LevelBaking Powder (ounces per pound of flour) 0-3,000¾ oz (20 g) 3,001-6,000½ oz (10 g), ,000¼ oz (5 g) Above 10,0001/8 oz (2.5 g)

33 33 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Cakes – Chef’s Tips Use eggs at/near room temperature (minimize unprotected time by using a warm water bath) Formula balancing is not mathematical, but rather an artful skill

34 34 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Summary The balance of ingredients determines the quality of the cake – resulting in a sweetened, light, tender, and moist cake There are four basic cake mixing methods: Foaming (cold, warm, and separation) Creaming Two stage mixing Chiffon cake mixing Adjust leavening agent based on altitude

35 35 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Exercises Review of cake variations Understanding the foaming qualities of eggs Demonstration of formula balancing Demonstration of cake mixing methods Review of measuring specific gravity of cake batter Troubleshooting cake baking problems

36 36 American Culinary Federation: Baking Fundamentals © 2007 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ All Rights Reserved Equipment Needed Mixers Pans and bowls (as needed) Cookie dough equipment Parchment paper Baking ovens Racks Refrigerators Ingredients (as needed)


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