Presentation on theme: "Problem, Progress & Proposal: Domestic Violence against Women in China Song Yueping, Renmin University of China International workshop on Feminist Economics."— Presentation transcript:
Problem, Progress & Proposal: Domestic Violence against Women in China Song Yueping, Renmin University of China International workshop on Feminist Economics in China and India New Delhi, India, 11-12/11/2013
Domestic violence against wives in China In traditional Chinese families, violence, especially beating is a common practice, to make the wife obedient. Traditional Chinese women’s social and family status can be clearly depicted in the Chinese aphorisms: “Beating is love, and scolding is intimacy. 打是亲，骂是爱 “A woman, a dog and a walnut tree, the more you beat the better they are.” 打出来 的老婆揉出来的面. VAW is the typical manifestation of gender stereotypes and masculine social norms, which will induce higher morbidity and mortality among women.
The progress in new century…… While in China, VAW was quite a issue of privacy, and the female victim of abuse could hardly get the social and law support before 2000. “An impartial judge will find himself worthless in hearing a case of domestic disputes” 清官难断家务事。 In 2001, a famous TV play in China ”Don’t Respond to Strangers- Domestic Violence” was popular, and brought the VAM to the public awareness of the cost of tolerance of VAW. It is SILLY to keep silent toward VAW.
Progress on Domestic Violence in recent years ----National law and policy process Local branches of ACWF began anti DV legal initiatives after Beijing Conference 1995. 2001 Marriage Law amended to include a law outlawing domestic violence/2005 LRIW amended – remedial measures included. In 2008, seven ministries including the Supreme People's Procuratorate, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of Justice, and ACWF jointly formulated the “Several opinions on Preventing and Stopping Domestic Violence” which stipulated the responsibility of all departments in preventing and treating domestic violence. Both the National Plan of Action for Women and Children (2001-2010) and the Human Rights Action Plan (2009-2010) mention curbing VAW as one of their priorities.
Progress on Domestic Violence in recent years All the laws and policies mentioned above do not work at operation level, and there is not a national Domestic Violence Law yet in China (Standing Committee of the National People's Congress put it into the their plan recently ). 2008 – Guide for Supreme People’s Court issued on domestic violence and “protection orders” mechanism, attempting to adopt a protective order system in domestic violence cases, and had set up pilot in various cities with positive effects. Then, quickly, More than 3000 collegiate panels for VAW had been set up till 2010, mostly with female judges and juries from ACWF. And anti-DV social networks, pilot hospital intervention in recognition of VAW as health issue, policeman interventions, shelters for victims……. As a result, the prevalence of VAM reduced, and the accessibility of succor for victims keeps increasing.
The famous example 'Crazy English' founder accused of domestic violence in 2011. Li Yang’s wife, Kim Li, American resident, brought a suit against Li Yang for beating in 2011 in Beijing, and in Feb, 2013, won the suit.
Current Situation According to latest survey, the Lower prevalence of VAW, especially physical abuse like beating and sex abuse. While big difference across rural-urban\ different regions. Women from rural\ midwest areas\with lower education \lower income are more vulnerable to DV. In 2000, the cwss 2 only measured the prevalence of beating and sexual abuse, reflecting the limitation of understanding of AVM at that time. In 2010, the cwss 3 measured 6 types of DV, including beating, sex abuse, verbal abuse, ignorance, financial control and physical control. There is a sharp decrease in AMV in China during the past 10 years, in 2000, 22.5% married women had been beaten by spouses, and in 2010 only 5.4%; the sex abuse rate dropped from 10.8% to 1.7%.
How to understand the effect of women’s economic empowerment on DV? Specifically, as a manifestation of EE of women, how does land right act in protecting women from DV?
The Evolution of Rural Land Policy in Recent 30 Years: longer tenure. 1978 ： The HRS established, rural household could claim to land use rights based on person, everyone have land right. 1983 ： The first round of national contract land allocation implemented. 1984 ： 15 years land tenure. Locally land shares were frequently adjusted according to demographic and marriage changes. 1998 ： Land tenure was extended to 30 years in the second contract round. 2003 ： Rural Land Contract Law “the nation guarantees the land tenure stability”, “within the tenure, the large land adjustments are prohibited”.””
Gender implications of land reform “ land will not be increased even if household member increases, and land will not be reduced even if household member die or married out ”during the tenure. Under the traditional social norms of patrilocal marriage system, longer and stable land tenure will impair women’s land right potentially. Married women ： could not get land in husband’s home in short run, and hardly get revenue from her land quota in native family. Divorced/Widowed ： could not bring the land when left the family. Unmarried women ： girls get less land quota than boys especially who were expected to get married around the reallocation of land, as they are expected to move out from the home. Women are encountered with higher and higher risk losing land due to marriage
Women’s Landlessness under Rural Land Policy Scheme Big difference among women married during different periods. Increasing proportion of “do not have a land bringing revenues” Data:
The reasons why do not have a profitable land: Expropriat ed without refund, 5% Lose after marriage, 7%
The DV occurrence is little higher for the women losing land right after marriage BeatVerbal abuseBeat/verbal Entitled to profitable land8.518.831.4 Entitled, but no revenue220.127.116.11 Lose directly due to marriage9.418.433.5 Never have land7.015.330.9 Expropriated9.515.826.3 Total8.518.831.7
（ 1 ） Verbal abuse （ 2 ） Beat （ 3 ） Beat/verbal ORS.EORS.EORS.E Entitled to profitable land Entitled, but no revenue 1.2590.3171.1870.3841.435*0.296 Lose directly due to marriage 1.3100.2291.487*0.3251.265*0.180 Never have land 0.9800.1831.1440.2801.1800.172 Expropriated 0.4100.3300.3030.3130.3930.237
Empirical finding: ① Due to changing land policies and patriarchy, patrilocal norms, proportion of women losing land increased rapidly. ② While losing entitlement to a profitable land could increase women’s risk being abused. Policy implication: The land right of the married women should be protected Long run Currently The household land quota should be allocated based on the actual number of the residing family in the new round of land distribution. In the urbanization process, women without land should also be refunded due to land expropriation, especially for women who remain land in their native families, the refund should be paid directly to those married out women’s own bank account, not the household.
Profile of Economic Empowerment of Women in China beyond land: Economic Empowermen t Off-farm employment OpportunityIncomeAsset control Land entitlement House/apart ment Independent bank account 16
Women’s economic empowerment can prevent ADV to some extent Compared with those economically deprived women, women with off-farm job, entitled with a house, and with personal back account are a little better off.
SOME OTHER THOUGHTS: Current momentum around women’s economic empowerment offers huge scope for bringing about real changes in women’s lives in China. But earning an income or having access to economic resources cannot be assumed to bring automatic benefits for women. How increased EE can be translated into changes in the life that women are able to make – at least at household level? (calls for more specific and accurate survey and research ) And what are the impacts of women’s greater access to resources on gender relations and social norms more broadly?
Anti-domestic Violence poster in China: not let the DV destroy your family. Poster of anniversary of the day for elimination of violence against women : say no to DV, and cherish happy life.