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Chapter 24 Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies. Terms to Know Shortened Cakes Unshortened Cakes Chiffon Cake Pastry Crystalline Candy Noncrystalline Candy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24 Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies. Terms to Know Shortened Cakes Unshortened Cakes Chiffon Cake Pastry Crystalline Candy Noncrystalline Candy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24 Cookies, Cakes, Pies and Candies

2 Terms to Know Shortened Cakes Unshortened Cakes Chiffon Cake Pastry Crystalline Candy Noncrystalline Candy Sugar Syrup

3 Objectives Describe the function of the basic ingredients used in cakes Identify six types of cookies Explain principles of pastry preparation Compare characteristics of crystalline and non crystalline candies Prepare cakes and cookies

4 Cakes Two Groups Shortened Cakes (butter cakes): contain fat and most contain leavening agents.  Tender, Moist and Velvety Unshortened Cakes (Foam Cakes): contain no fat, leavened by air and steam  Angel food and Sponge Cakes Chiffon Cakes: cross between shortened and unshortened. Contain fat(shortened cakes) and beaten egg whites (unshortened cakes)  Large volume, but not as light as shortened cake

5 Ingredients Flour, sugar, eggs, liquid and salt.  Shortened cakes: fat and leavening agent  Unshortened cakes: cream of tartar Flour: gives structure Sugar: gives sweetness Eggs: improve flavor and color Liquid: provides moisture Salt: provides flavoring Fat: tenderizes the gluten Leavening Agents: make cakes rise and become porous and moist Cream of Tartar: makes egg whites whiter and cake grain finer, stabilizes egg whites Flavorings: help make cake special

6 Measuring Ingredients Flour, Fat, Sugar and Eggs affect the development of gluten Correct proportions will create a cake that is light and tender Flour: –A cake made with too much flour is compact and dry –A cake made with too little is coarse and may fall Fat and Sugar –Too much fat or sugar over tenderize the gluten and weaken the cake. It will be heavy and coarse and may fall –A cake made with too little fat or sugar will be tough Liquid: –Too much liquid will cause the cake to be heavy and soggy –Too little will cause the cake to be dry and heavy Too many eggs will make the cake rubbery and tough

7 Mixing Must mix the correct proportions Should be neither over mixed or under mixed Overmixing causes gluten to overdevelop The cake will be tough Overmixing Angel Food Cake will cause air to be lost – The volume of the cake will be smaller

8 Baking Make sure pans are the correct size If they are too small: batter will overflow If they are too large: cake will be flat and may be dry Correct size: creates cake with a gently rounded top Grease pans for shortened cakes and flour them lightly

9 Baking Continued Do NOT grease pans for unshortened cakes, because they must cling to the pan during baking Place cake in preheated oven at the correct temperature Bake them until they test done TEST: Place a toothpick in the middle, if it comes out clean the cake is done OR lightly touch the center with your fingertip, if it springs back, it's done If temp. is too high: cake may burn, If cake is baked too long, it may be dry

10 Preparing Shortened Cakes Conventional Method: Cream the fat and sugar together until light and fluffy. Beat the eggs into the creamed fat and sugar. Then add the dry ingredients alternately with the liquid Quick-mix Method or One Bowl Method: measure the dry ingredients into the mixing bowl. Beat the and part of the liquid with the dry ingredients. Add the remaining liquid and unbeaten eggs last.

11 Preparing Shortened Cakes Pour cake batter into pans Arrange pans in the oven so that they are not touching each other or any part of the oven –Hot spots may form and the cake may bake unevenly Test cake for doneness Let cake cool for about 10 minutes

12 Characteristics High Quality Shortened Cakes: Velvety and Light Interior has small fine cells with thin walls Crusts are thin and evenly browned Top crust is smooth or slightly pebbly and gently rounded Flavor is mild and pleasing

13 Pound Cakes Shortened Cakes that contain no chemical leavening agents Pound cakes rely on air and steam for leavening Pound cakes are more compact than other shortened cakes and have a close grain

14 Unshortened Cakes Ingredients should be at room temperature –Cold eggs will not achieve maximum volume Different mixing methods Angel food: Beat egg whites with some of the sugar until stiff. Carefully fold the flour and remaining sugar into the beaten egg whites Sponge cake: Beat dry ingredients into the egg yolk. Then fold beaten egg whites into the egg yolk mixture

15 Preparing Unshortened Cakes Pour batter into ungreased tube pan. Run spatula through batter to release air bubbles and seal batter against the sides of the pan Bake in preheated oven for recommended period of time Test for doneness: touch the cracks. They should feel dry and no imprint should remain When you remove it from the oven, immediately suspend the pan upside down to prevent loss of volume during cooling Cool cake completely before removing

16 Characteristics High Quality Large volume Interior is spongy and porous Has thin cell walls Cake is tender and moist

17 Sponge Cakes Contain whole eggs rather than just egg whites Mixing method: Beat egg yolks until they are thick and lemon colored. – Add liquid, sugar and salt to the yolks. –Continue beating until the mixture is thick. –Gently fold flour into the yolk mixture. – Then fold stiffly beaten egg whites into the flour- yolk mixture

18 Chiffon Cakes Mixing Method –Mix egg yolks, oil, liquid and flavoring with dry ingredients –Beat mixture until smooth –Beat in egg whites with the sugar and cream of tartar –Fold egg white mixture into other mixture Characteristics –Large Volume –Interior is moist and has cells with thin walls –Tender and has a pleasing flavor

19 Microwaving Cakes Shortened Cakes can be cooked in the microwave They will not have the same browning as cakes cooked in the oven Microwave cakes one layer at a time Use round or ring shaped pans for even cooking Begin at medium power level, then rotate the cake and continue cooking on high power Test for doneness with a toothpick

20 Cookies Six basic groups –Rolled: Stiff doughs –Drop: Soft dough –Bar: Soft dough –Refrigerator: High proportion of Fat, Stiff Dough –Pressed: Rich,Stiff Dough –Molded: Stiff Dough Doughs differ in consistency and you shape them differently

21 Cookies –Rolled: Stiff doughs Roll the dough, cut cookies from the dough with a cookie cutter. –Sugar cookies are popular rolled cookies –Drop: Soft dough Drop or press the cookies from a spoon onto the cookie sheet. Spread more than rolled cookies. –Chocolate chip cookies are popular drop cookies –Bar: Soft dough Spread dough evenly in a jelly roll pan or square cake pan and bake it. May be chewy or cake like, Can be cut into different shapes –Brownies are popular bar cookies

22 Cookies –Refrigerator: High proportion of Fat, Stiff Dough Form dough into a long roll, wrap roll in plastic wrap and refrigerate it until firm. Cut dough into thin slices and place on lightly greased cookie sheet –Pinwheel cookies are popular refrigerator cookies –Pressed: Rich,Stiff Dough Pack dough into a cookie press(utensil has perforated disks through which you push the dough) cookies will vary in shape and size –Swedish spritz cookies are popular pressed cookies –Molded: Stiff Dough Break off small pieces of dough and shape them with your fingers. –Crescents and small balls are popular molded cookies

23 Cookie Ingredients Flour, sugar,liquid, fat, salt and leavening. Most contain more fat and sugar and less liquid than cakes Rolled cookies contain no liquid Proportion of ingredients and the way you shape them determine whether cookies are crisp or soft

24 Cookie Mixing Methods Conventional mixing method used for shortened cakes –Blend sugar and fat until soft and fluffy –Add the eggs. Liquid and flavorings, followed by the dry ingredients. –Cookies are crisp and chewy Macaroons, meringues and kisses contain beaten egg whites Mix them like angel food cakes You mix some cookies using the biscuit method

25 Microwaving Cookies Bar Cookies work well in the microwave Because the whole pan cooks at once Use foil shields to keep side from burning in square or oblong pans Microwaved on medium power Checked for doneness with a toothpick

26 Storing Cookies Store crisp cookies in a container with a loose fitting cover –Crisp cookies need to remain dry Store dry cookies in a container with a tight fitting container Store bar cookies in the original pan if you cover them You can freeze cookies in dough form or after baking

27 Freshening Cookies If crisp cookies have become soft –Place cookies on a cookies sheet in a 300 degree oven for a few minutes If soft cookies become hard –Place a piece of bread, an apple slice or an orange section in the container

28 Pies 4 Kinds: Fruit: 2 crust pies May have solid or lattice or decorative top. May use commercially prepared filling or make your own Cream: 1 crust pies. Use corn-starch thickened pudding mixture to make filling. Meringue topping is often used Custard: 1 crust pies. Filled with custard made from milk, eggs and sugar. Custard may or may not contain other ingredients Chiffon: light and airy one crust pies. Filled with a mixture of gelatin and cooked beaten egg whites. Some contain whip cream. They need to be chilled until filling sets

29 Candy Most will be cooked A few with special recipes do not need to be cooked Cooked candies are either crystalline or noncrystalline Crystalline Candies: Contain fine sugar crystals. Taste smooth and creamy –Fudge, Fondant, Divinity Noncrystalline candies: do not contain sugar crystals, Can be chewy or brittle. –Peanut Brittle, Toffee and caramels

30 Other Pastry: the dough used to make pie crusts –Not difficult to make, but requires patience and practice Sugar Syrup: mixture of sugar and liquid that is cooked to a thick consistency –All candies begin with this


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