Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה www.izionist.org/NA Zionism in Action: A Deeper Look at Israeli.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה www.izionist.org/NA Zionism in Action: A Deeper Look at Israeli."— Presentation transcript:

1 Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Zionism in Action: A Deeper Look at Israeli Women In Honor of FeminIsrael, A WZO Project in Conjunction with Women’s History Month

2 “The creation story of Genesis 2-3, in which Eve is created from Adam’s rib after Adam himself has been created, and in which Eve is eventually blamed for having tempted Adam to sin, seems to express patriarchy. However, in Genesis 1 there is an equally famous passage which states that God created man(kind) in his (our) image to rule over the earth. “God created man in his image, male and female he created them.” Clearly the Bible is not monolithic. There is an egalitarian tradition as well as a tradition that emphasizes man’s preeminence and justifies his rule over women” Naomi Graetz Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Judaism and Feminism?

3 Discussion break These differences in interpretation indicate two very different ways of understanding the role of women in Judaism. How do you see this play out in the rituals you are familiar with? Does this opposition feel like the Judaism you know? Take, for example, the Jewish wedding… Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה

4 Typical Zionist strength revolve around the concept of a “new Jew”– one who is masculine and empowered and virile Zionist narratives connected to heroic male Jewish figures, such as Judah Maccabee, Samson and Bar Kochva Herzl believed that “freedom came with manliness” Ben-Yehuda revitalizes and modernizes the Hebrew language. Hebrew remains a gendered language that prioritizes masculinity: when the plural includes even one male object, the gender remains male. Chauvinism: derives from nationalist ideology and military prowess, as Hanna Arendt explains: “ Chauvinism is an almost natural product of the national concept in so far as it springs directly from the old idea of the "national mission." Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Zionism and Feminism?

5 Discussion break: Early Zionist Posters Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה

6 Zionism centered on a narrative of “rebirth” and “fertility,” highlighting the femininity of the land Zionism relied on reproduction as a way of populating Palestine Despite Zionism’s opposition to religious Judaism, the Zionist language invoked Jewish narratives of female fertility as a means of enabling Jewish survival What is the best method for women to contribute to the Zionist project? Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה And yet…

7 Discussion break: Rachel the Poet Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Rachel was born in Russia in 1890, a descendent of a family of Rabbis. She began writing poetry at the age of 15. At the age of 19, Rachel visited Israel with her sister on the route to Italy. They had planned to study art and philosophy in Italy, but decided instead to stay in Israel as Zionist pioneers. They settled in Rehovot and worked in the orchards. Later, Rachel moved to Kvutzat Kinneret on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where she studied and worked in a women's agricultural school. The majority of her poetry is set in the pastoral countryside of Israel. Many of her poems echo her feelings of longing and loss, a result of her inability to realize her aspirations in life. In several poems she mourns the fact that she will never have a child of her own. Lyrical, exceedingly musical and characterized by its simple language and deep feeling, her poetry deals with fate, her own difficult life, and death. Her love poems emphasize the feelings of loneliness, distance, and longing for the beloved; her lighter poetry is ironic, often comic. Her writing was influenced by French imagism, Biblical stories, and the literature of the Second Aliyah pioneers.

8 Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה I have not sung you, my country not brought glory to your name with great deeds of a hero or the spoils a battle yields. But on the shores of the Jordan my hands have planted a tree, and my feet have made a pathway through your fields. Modest are the gifts I bring you. I know this, mother. modest, I know, the offerings of your daughter; Only an outburst of song on a day when the light flares up only a silent tear for your poverty. לֹא שַׁרְתִּי לָךְ, אַרְצִי, וְלֹא פֵּאַרְתִּי שְׁמֵךְ בַּעֲלִילוֹת גְּבוּרָה, בִּשְׁלַל קְרָבוֹת ; רַק עֵץ – יָדַי נָטְעוּ חוֹפֵי יַרְדֵּן שׁוֹקְטִים. רַק שְׁבִיל – כָּבְשׁוּ רַגְלַי עַל פְּנֵי שָׂדוֹת. אָכֵן דַּלָּה מְאֹד – יָדַעְתִּי זֹאת, הָאֵם, אָכֵן דַּלָּה מְאֹד מִנְחַת בִּתֵּךְ ; רַק קוֹל תְּרוּעַת הַגִּיל בְּיוֹם יִגַּהּ הָאוֹר, רַק בְּכִי בַּמִּסְתָּרִים עֲלֵי עָנְיֵךְ. To My Country- אל ארצי

9 Much of the Zionist imagery that soon arose from this movement focused on the relationship between the Zionist pioneers, strong and muscular, and the female land, whose fertility held endless abundance. “The motherland image turned the native land into a womb that brought forth new- born sons. But when Jews created a new reality of life and work in Palestine, the symbol shifted from mother to lover, as the emerging male hero reclaimed his lost bride, the land” Sheila H. Katz, Women and gender in early Jewish and Palestinian nationalism Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה

10 Since its establishment in 1948, the state of Israel has had the image of a country in which women enjoy full equality. However, there are many areas, in which traditions, social institutions, religious rules, and even laws have kept women at a disadvantage: in the workplace, in divorce proceedings and as victims of violence. Women as a group are disadvantaged in the labor market, the health system, education, the courts and religious institutions and are subject to harassment and violence. Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Israel and Feminism?

11 Profile of the Israeli Woman: Lives longer than the Israeli Man – Average life span for women is 81.2 years compared to 77.3 years for men. Serves in the Army – 1995 High Court of Justice decision regarding A. Miller – 2000, amendment to the Security Service Law opening all military positions to women Marries Young – The average marrying age for Jewish women is 24.5, and or Muslim women In Europe the average marrying age for women is 27. Has the highest number of children in the Western world – The Israeli average is 2.89 compared to 2.5 in Turkey and 2 in the U.S. Is Well Educated – Israel ranks 7th in the Western world 57% of academic degrees and 46% of doctoral degrees held by women. Works – Israeli women comprise 49% of the Israeli workforce – Wage gap between men and women is 30%. Source: Report of the Knesset Committee for the Advancement of the Status of Women Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה

12 To Be a Working Women in Israel Strong Legislation – Employment of Women Law – Equal Opportunity in Employment Law – 1993 – Law Against Sexual Harassment Management Roles – CEOs - 10% women – Senior Management - 32% women – Directors in government companies - 33% Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה

13 Equal education Equal pay Professional development and opportunity Fair divorce Right to abortion Violence against women Religious oppression Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Issues at Play

14 Discussion break Dilemmas: Women in combat Civil marriage Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה

15 Democratic ideals vs. societal norms? Laws vs. practice? Traditional values vs. modern perspectives? Judaism vs. secularism? Professional empowerment vs. personal equality? Public sphere vs. private sphere? Military prowess vs. motherhood? Strength vs. femininity? Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה Food for Thought : Feminism in Israel


Download ppt "Department for Diaspora Activities -North America המחלקה לפעילות בתפוצות - צפון אמריקה www.izionist.org/NA Zionism in Action: A Deeper Look at Israeli."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google