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Page created by W. G. HuangCredit Digital Globe. Taiwan 2010-01-12 at 21:53:10.4 UTC 18.47 N ; 72.55 W Mw=7.1; Depth=10 km Earthquake Parameters Page.

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Presentation on theme: "Page created by W. G. HuangCredit Digital Globe. Taiwan 2010-01-12 at 21:53:10.4 UTC 18.47 N ; 72.55 W Mw=7.1; Depth=10 km Earthquake Parameters Page."— Presentation transcript:

1 Page created by W. G. HuangCredit Digital Globe

2 Taiwan at 21:53:10.4 UTC N ; W Mw=7.1; Depth=10 km Earthquake Parameters Page created by W. G. Huang

3 Earthquake Parameters Page created by W. G. Huang at 21:53:10.4 UTC N ; W Mw=7.1; Depth=10 km

4 What caused the quake?

5 歐亞板塊 Eurasian 印度 - 澳洲板塊 Indian/Australian 非洲板塊 African 太平洋板塊 Pacific 南美板塊 South American 北美板塊 North American 南極板塊 Antarctica 菲律賓板塊 Philippines 加勒比海板塊 Caribbean 納薩卡板塊 Nazca 太平洋板塊 Pacific Page created by W. G. Huang The USGS reported that the earthquakes occurred along the boundary between the Caribbean and North America plates. The two tectonic plates meet at a strike-slip fault, with the Caribbean plate moving eastward with respect to the North America plate. The January 12 earthquake was the worst to strike the region in decades, and possibly well over a century.

6 7.0 Quake Near Port Au Prince Page created by W. G. HuangCredit NASA This map shows the topography and tectonic influences in the region of the earthquake. Ocean areas appear in shades of blue, and land areas appear in shades of brown. Lighter colors indicate higher elevation on land and shallower depth in the water. Black circles mark earthquake locations determined by the USGS, and circle sizes correspond with quake magnitudes. Dozens of aftershocks followed the main quake. Red lines indicate fault lines.

7 7.0 Quake Near Port Au Prince Page created by W. G. Huang The epicenter of the quake appears just south of the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden Fault, the southernmost of two major east-west-trending faults that bear the stress of the convergence of the Caribbean and North America tectonic plates in this location. Though faults are weak spots or fractures in the Earth’s crust below the surface, very often there are topographical clues to their presence. In this case, the presence of the fault is indicated by long, straight valley cutting through southern Haiti, just south of Port-Au-Prince. Credit NASA

8 Haiti Earthquake, January 12th, 2010

9 Credit iMMAPPage created by W. G. Huang

10 Haiti Overview Map Port au Prince and Surrounding Areas Page created by W. G. Huang

11 Credit USAID Intensity Map

12 Haiti: Earthquake damage map - January 12, 2009 Page created by W. G. HuangCredit OCHA

13 Haiti Earthquakes Potentially Affected Population Page created by W. G. HuangCredit OCHA

14 Fast teleseismic body-wave source inversion (by Martin Vallé; Géoazur, Nice, France) Page created by W. G. Huang

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16 Source parameters, uncertainties and agreement with teleseismic data. (Top left) Optimal values of moment magnitude, depth and focal mechanism. (Bottom left) Uncertainty analysis : misfit and moment magnitude changes as a function of dip and depth variations around their optimal values. Optimal dip and depth are indicated by the white diamond (the best misfit value is also shown). The thick line is the iso-misfit contour (noted C1) joining points with misfit 10% larger than the best value. The four thin lines are the iso-misfit contours joining points with misfit 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% larger than the best value. Moment magnitude associated with each (dip-depth) couple is shown with the colorscale. Acceptable values of dip, depth and magnitude are those which are inside the C1 contour. (Right) Agreement between data (black) and synthetics (red), both for compressive (i.e. P, PcP, PP) waves and transverse (i.e. S, ScS) waves (frequency band : Hz). Name of the station, azimuth, distance and maximum amplitude (in microns) are shown for each signal. Page created by W. G. Huang

17 Broadband Source time functions (RSTFs), in the time and frequency domains. (Top left) Optimal values of moment magnitude, depth and focal mechanism. (Bottom left) Spectrum of the compressive RSTFs. The classical omega-2 slope is shown in the left part of the figure. (Right) Broadband RSTFs, in the time domain, for compressive waves. For each RSTF, the name of the station, its azimuth and epicentral distance are shown. Page created by W. G. Huang

18 Finite Fault Model Preliminary Result of the Jan 12, 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti Earthquake Gavin Hayes, NEIC Page created by W. G. Huang

19 Cross-section of slip distribution. The strike direction of fault plane is indicated by the black arrow and the hypocenter location is denoted by the red star. The slip amplitude are showed in color and motion direction of the hanging wall relative to the footwall is indicated by white arrows. Contours show the rupture initiation time in seconds. Page created by W. G. Huang

20 Source time function, describing the rate of moment release with time after earthquake origin. Page created by W. G. Huang

21 Comparison of teleseismic body waves. The data is shown in black and the synthetic seismograms are plotted in red. Both data and synthetic seismograms are aligned on the P or SH arrivals. The number at the end of each trace is the peak amplitude of the observation in micro-meter. The number above the beginning of each trace is the source azimuth and below is the epicentral distance. Shading describes relative weighting of the waveforms. Page created by W. G. Huang

22 Comparison of long period surface waves. The data is shown in black and the synthetic seismograms are plotted in red. Both data and synthetic seismograms are aligned on the P or SH arrivals. The number at the end of each trace is the peak amplitude of the observation in micro-meter. The number above the beginning of each trace is the source azimuth and below is the epicentral distance. Shading describes relative weighting of the waveforms. Page created by W. G. Huang

23 Surface projection of the slip distribution superimposed on ETOPO2. The dark gray circles indicate the locations of ~20 hours of aftershocks. Page created by W. G. Huang

24 Before and After Earthquake Page created by W. G. Huang

25 Before and after satellite imagery of an area of Port-au-Prince Page created by W. G. HuangCredit Digital Globe Before After

26 Page created by W. G. HuangCredit Digital Globe

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28 Page created by W. G. HuangCredit Digital Globe

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33 48 Hours Later

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39 72 Hours Later Page created by W. G. Huang

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